Pulse Stim-Free | Caffeine-Free Pre-Workout

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If you don’t like something of ours, guess what happens next?

No, we don’t request you deliver it to a PO box in the Gobi Desert by carrier pigeon. Nor do we ask you to fill a cursed inkwell with orc’s blood and demon saliva and with it complete reams of return forms written in ancient Cyrillic script.

We just . . . wait for it . . . give you your money back. Holy moo cows. And that means you can say "yes" now and decide later. You really have nothing to lose.

Why International Bestselling Author Mike Matthews Created Stim-Free Pulse

Do you want more strength, speed, and stamina in your workouts?

Looking to reduce fatigue during exercise?

Interested in avoiding the dreaded post-workout crash?

If so, you want Stim-Free Pulse.

It’s a 100% natural stimulant-free pre-workout drink that boosts strength, power, and Stim-Free Pulse contains 8,000 mg of citrulline malate, 3,600 mg of beta-alanine, 300 mg of alpha-GPC, and 2,500 mg of betaine per serving, which together improve strength, endurance, power, and anaerobic performance. endurance Stim-Free Pulse contains 8,000 mg of citrulline malate, 3,600 mg of beta-alanine, 300 mg of alpha-GPC, and 2,500 mg of betaine per serving, which together improve strength, endurance, power, and anaerobic performance. , and reduces fatigueStim-Free Pulse contains 3,600 mg of beta-alanine per serving, which reduces exercise-induced fatigue, improves anaerobic performance, and increases work capacity..

The reason Stim-Free Pulse is so effective is simple:

Every ingredient is backed by peer-reviewed scientific research Every active ingredient in Stim-Free Pulse is supported by high-quality scientific studies demonstrating efficacy in healthy humans. and is included at clinically effective levels Every dose of every active ingredient in Stim-Free Pulse is at a clinically effective level, which is the exact amount shown to be safe and effective in peer-reviewed scientific research. .

Stim-Free Pulse is also naturally sweetened and flavored Stim-Free Pulse contains no artificial sweeteners, flavoring, or other chemical junk. Instead, it has natural sweeteners and flavoring, which can confer health benefits like better insulin sensitivity, a lower cholesterol profile, and improved blood glucose control. and contains no artificial food dyes or other chemical junk.

So, if you want some help getting fired up, zeroed in, and ready to crush your workouts . . . you want to try Stim-Free Pulse today.

You won’t be disappointed.

In fact, if you don’t absolutely love Stim-Free Pulse, just let us know and we’ll give you a full refund on the spot If you don't absolutely love Stim-Free Pulse for whatever reason, you get a prompt and courteous refund. No forms to fill out or hoops to jump through. That means you can say "yes" now and decide later. . No form or return necessary.

You really can’t lose, so order now, and try Stim-Free Pulse risk-free and see if it’s for you.

Notice to California Consumers

WARNING: Consuming this product can expose you to chemicals including lead which is known to the State of California to cause cancer and birth defects or other reproductive harm. For more information go to www.P65Warnings.ca.gov/food.

See how Legion compares to the rest.

  • Active Ingredients
  • Citrulline Malate
  • Beta-Alanine
  • Betaine
  • Alpha-GPC
  • 100% Natural Ingredients
  • Naturally Sweetened
    & Flavored
  • Lab Tested
  • Labdoor Ranking
  • Price Per Serving
  • Legion Pulse
    Stim-Free Pre-Workout

    Recharge
  • 14,400 mg
    per serving
  • 8,000 mg
    per serving
  • 3,600 mg
    per serving
  • 2,500 mg
    per serving
  • 300 mg
    per serving
  • True
  • True
  • True
  • A-
  • $
  • Pre-Kaged
    Stimulant Free

    Post JYM Post-Workout
  • 23,050 mg
    per serving
  • 6,500 mg
    per serving
  • 1,600 mg
    per serving
  • 2,500 mg
    per serving
  • False
  • False
  • False
  • Question Mark
  • False
  • $1.99
  • PEScience
    High Volume

    PEScience TruCreatine+
  • 10,750 mg
    per serving
  • 4,000 mg
    per serving
  • False
  • False
  • False
  • False
  • False
  • Question Mark
  • False
  • $1.94
  • C4
    NO3 Ultimate

    Cellucor M5 Ultimate
  • 7,180 mg
    per serving
  • 4,000 mg
    per serving
  • False
  • False
  • False
  • False
  • False
  • Question Mark
  • False
  • $1.99
100% Natural Ingredients
100% Natural Ingredients

Stim-free Pulse doesn’t just “contain natural ingredients”—every ingredient is naturally sourced. We don’t use artificial or synthetic substances of any kind.

Clinically Effective Doses
Clinically Effective Doses

Every ingredient and dose (important!) in stim-free Pulse is backed by peer-reviewed scientific research demonstrating clear benefits.

Naturally Sweetened & Flavored
Naturally Sweetened & Flavored

Stim-free Pulse is naturally sweetened and flavored with healthy, plant-based sweeteners and flavors.

Lab Tested
Lab Tested

Stim-free Pulse is tested by third-party labs for heavy metals, microbes, allergens, and other contaminants to ensure it meets FDA purity standards.

Made in USA
Made in USA

Stim-free Pulse is proudly made in America in NSF-certified and FDA-inspected facilities in accordance with the Current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) regulations.

100% Money-Back-Guarantee
100% Money-Back-Guarantee

If you don't absolutely love stim-free Pulse, you get a prompt and courteous refund. No forms or returns necessary.

Ingredients (14.4 grams per serving)

Citrulline Malate (8 grams per serving)

Citrulline malate is the amino acid L-citrulline bound with malic acid, a natural substance found in many fruits that is involved in the creation of cellular energy.

L-citrulline turns into another amino acid in the body known as L-arginine, which increases the production of a gas known as nitric oxide that widens blood vessels and improves blood flow.[1][2]

This is why research shows that supplementation with citrulline malate . . .

  • Improves muscle endurance[3][4][5]
  • Relieves muscle soreness[6]
  • Improves aerobic performance[7][8]

The clinically effective dose of citrulline malate is between 4 and 10 grams.

Citrulline Malate

CarnoSyn® Beta-Alanine (3.6 grams per serving)

Beta-alanine is a naturally occurring amino acid that regulates the amount of the molecule carnosine that can be stored in the muscles.[9]

Carnosine reduces muscle acidity, which increases the amount of work that muscles can do before they become fatigued.[10]

This is why research shows that supplementation with beta-alanine . . .

The clinically effective dose of beta-alanine is between 2.6 and 6.4 grams.

We chose to include 3.6 grams of CarnoSyn® beta-alanine per serving because it provides significant performance benefits while also minimizing the common and harmless side effect of a mild prickling, itching, or tingling of the skin.[25]

CarnoSyn® Beta-Alanine

AlphaSize® Alpha-GPC (300 milligrams per serving)

Alpha-glycerophosphocholine (also known as alpha-GPC and glycerophosphocholine) is a compound that contains two molecules known as choline and glycerophosphate.

Choline is a nutrient that’s vital for brain health and function, and glycerophosphate is a substance that helps transport choline to the brain.

When ingested, alpha-GPC increases the activity of a chemical in the brain known as acetylcholine, which is used by nerves to communicate with each other, and provides the brain with glycerophosphate, which can improve its health and function.

This is why research shows that supplementation with alpha-GPC . . .

  • Increases power output[26]
  • Mitigates cognitive decline as we age[27]
  • Increases growth hormone levels[28]

The clinically effective dose of alpha-GPC is between 150 and 1,200 milligrams, with 250 to 500 milligrams sufficient for cognitive benefits and higher doses required for affecting dementia.[29]

We chose to include 300 milligrams of AlphaSize® alpha-GPC (50%) per serving because it’s enough to provide some benefit without eating up too much budget that we’d rather spend on other ingredients.

Furthermore, this dose reduces the likelihood of headaches in people who are using stim-free Pulse and Forge together, and especially in people who are using stim-free Pulse, Forge, and Ascend together.

AlphaSize® Alpha-GPC

Betaine (2.5 grams per serving)

Betaine (also known as trimethylglycine) is an amino acid found in various foods like beets (hence the name), spinach, and quinoa.

Betaine’s rich in a special molecule known as a methyl group, which is a vital component of many physiological functions, including DNA production, fat metabolism, cellular energy production, and more.

Betaine’s also an osmolyte, which is a substance that helps balance fluid levels inside and outside cells.

These two properties are beneficial during times of physical stress, and this is why studies show that betaine boosts muscle endurance and increases strength.[30][31]

The clinically effective dose of betaine is between 1.25 and 2.5 grams.

Betaine

100% Naturally Sweetened & Flavored

No Artificial Food Dyes or Other Chemical Junk

100% Naturally Sweetened & Flavored

While artificial sweeteners may not be as dangerous as some people claim, studies suggest that regular consumption of these chemicals may indeed be harmful to our health.[32][33][34][35][36][37]

That’s why we use the natural sweeteners stevia and erythritol instead. Studies show that these ingredients are not only safe but can also confer several health benefits, including better insulin sensitivity, a lower cholesterol profile, improved blood glucose control, potential anti-cancer effects, lower blood pressure and inflammation levels, and more.[38][39][40][41]

No Artificial Food Dyes or Other Chemical Junk

As with artificial sweeteners, studies show that artificial food dyes may cause negative effects in some people, including gastrointestinal toxicity and behavioral disorders.[42][43][44][45][46]

That’s why we use natural coloring derived from fruits and other foods, as well as natural flavoring.

No Artificial Food Dyes or Other Chemical Junk

No Artificial Food Dyes or Other Chemical Junk

Lab Tested for Potency & Purity

Lab Tested for Potency & Purity

Lab Tested for Potency & Purity

Every bottle of stim-free Pulse is analyzed in a state-of-the-art ISO 17025 accredited lab to verify what is and isn’t in it. That way, you know exactly what you’re getting and putting into your body.

Pulse Stim-Free Lab Test Certificate

How to Use Stim-Free Pulse

If this is your first time using stim-free Pulse, assess your individual tolerance by mixing 1 scoop with 10-12 ounces of water and consuming 15-30 minutes prior to exercise.

If you experience any non-optimum effects, stop and consult your doctor.

We recommend using 1 scoop 15-30 minutes prior to weight training or intense cardio, or 2 scoops (full clinical doses) for intense weight training or cardio lasting longer than 45 minutes.

Supplement Facts

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Ingredients & Directions

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Directions

If this is your first time using stim-free Pulse, assess your individual tolerance by mixing 1 scoop with 10-12 ounces of water and consuming 15-30 minutes prior to exercise. If you experience any non-optimum effects, stop and consult your doctor. We recommend using 1 scoop 15-30 minutes prior to weight training or intense cardio, or 2 scoops (full clinical dosages) for intense weight training or cardio lasting longer than 45 minutes.

Warning

Not intended for persons under the age of 18. Do not use if pregnant or nursing. Consult a health care professional prior to consumption if you have any pre-existing medical conditions or are taking any prescription medication. Improper use of this product will not improve results and is potentially hazardous to a person's health. Use only as directed.

KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN. STORE IN A COOL, DRY PLACE. DO NOT USE IF SAFETY SEAL IS BROKEN OR MISSING.

Frequently Asked Questions

What type of workouts is stim-free Pulse good for?
Is stim-free Pulse suitable for women?
Are there any side effects I should know about?
Stim-free Pulse is too sweet/strong tasting for me. What should I do?
How many servings of stim-free Pulse can I take in one day?
What does the Prop65 warning on the label mean?
Is stim-free Pulse gluten-free, vegetarian, or vegan?

+Scientific References

1. Nitric oxide synthases: regulation and function (Articulo de revision).

Förstermann U, Sessa WC. Eur Heart J. 2012;33(7):829-837, 837a-837d. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehr304.

2. Vascular nitric oxide: Beyond eNOS.

Zhao Y, Vanhoutte PM, Leung SWS. J Pharmacol Sci. 2015;129(2):83-94. doi:10.1016/j.jphs.2015.09.002.

3. Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness.

Pérez-Guisado J, Jakeman PM. Department of Medicine, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain. J Strength Cond Res. 2010 May;24(5):1215-22.

4. Acute citrulline malate supplementation improves upper- and lower-body submaximal weightlifting exercise performance in resistance-trained females.

Glenn JM, Gray M, Wethington LN, Stone MS, Stewart RW, Moyen NE. Eur J Nutr. 2017;56(2):775-784. doi:10.1007/s00394-015-1124-6.

5. Acute citrulline-malate supplementation improves maximal strength and anaerobic power in female, masters athletes tennis players.

Glenn JM, Gray M, Jensen A, Stone MS, Vincenzo JL. Eur J Sport Sci. 2016;16(8):1095-1103. doi:10.1080/17461391.2016.1158321.

6. Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness.

Pérez-Guisado J, Jakeman PM. Department of Medicine, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain. J Strength Cond Res. 2010 May;24(5):1215-22.

7. Citrulline/malate promotes aerobic energy production in human exercising muscle.

Bendahan D, Mattei JP, Ghattas B, Confort-Gouny S, Le Guern ME, Cozzone PJ. Centre de Résonance Magnétique Biologique et Médicale, Faculté de Médecine de la Timone, France. Br J Sports Med. 2002 Aug;36(4):282-9.

8. Oral L-citrulline supplementation enhances cycling time trial performance in healthy trained men: Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled 2-way crossover study.

Suzuki T, Morita M, Kobayashi Y, Kamimura A. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016;13:6. doi:10.1186/s12970-016-0117-z.

9. Influence of oral beta-alanine and L-histidine supplementation on the carnosine content of the gluteus medius.

Dunnett M, Harris RC. Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, UK. Equine Vet J Suppl. 1999 Jul;(30):499-504.

10. The biological role of carnosine and its possible applications in medicine.

Budzeń S, Rymaszewska J. Adv Clin Exp Med. 22(5):739-744.

11. beta-Alanine supplementation augments muscle carnosine content and attenuates fatigue during repeated isokinetic contraction bouts in trained sprinters.

Derave W, Ozdemir MS, Harris RC, Pottier A, Reyngoudt H, Koppo K, Wise JA, Achten E. Dept. of Movement and Sport Sciences, Ghent Univ, Belgium. J Appl Physiol. 2007 Nov;103(5):1736-43.

12. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on the onset of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold in women.

Stout JR, Cramer JT, Zoeller RF, Torok D, Costa P, Hoffman JR, Harris RC, O'Kroy J. Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA. Amino Acids. 2007;32(3):381-6.

13. The effect of beta-alanine supplementation on neuromuscular fatigue in elderly (55-92 Years): a double-blind randomized study.

Stout JR, Graves BS, Smith AE, Hartman MJ, Cramer JT, Beck TW, Harris RC. Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2008 Nov 7;5:21.

14. Short-duration beta-alanine supplementation increases training volume and reduces subjective feelings of fatigue in college football players.

Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA, Faigenbaum AD, Ross R, Kang J, Stout JR, Wise JA. Department of Health and Exercise Science, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ, USA. Nutr Res. 2008 Jan;28(1):31-5.

15. Influence of beta-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity.

Hill CA, Harris RC, Kim HJ, Harris BD, Sale C, Boobis LH, Kim CK, Wise JA. School of Sports, Exercise & Health Sciences, University of Chichester, Chichester, UK. Amino Acids. 2007 Feb;32(2):225-33.

16. Effect of β-alanine plus sodium bicarbonate on high-intensity cycling capacity.

Sale C, Saunders B, Hudson S, Wise JA, Harris RC, Sunderland CD. Biomedical, Life and Health Sciences Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011 Oct;43(10):1972-8.

17. Six weeks of high-intensity interval training with and without beta-alanine supplementation for improving cardiovascular fitness in women.

Walter AA, Smith AE, Kendall KL, Stout JR, Cramer JT. Biophysics Laboratory, Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, USA. J Strength Cond Res. 2010 May;24(5):1199-207.

18. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial.

Smith AE, Walter AA, Graef JL, Kendall KL, Moon JR, Lockwood CM, Fukuda DH, Beck TW, Cramer JT, Stout JR. Metabolic and Body Composition Laboratory, Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2009 Feb 11;6:5.

19. Effects of β-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysis.

Hobson RM, Saunders B, Ball G, Harris RC, Sale C. Biomedical, Life and Health Sciences Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Lane, Nottingham, UK. Amino Acids. 2012 Jul;43(1):25-37.

20. Effects of β-alanine supplementation on performance and body composition in collegiate wrestlers and football players.

Kern BD, Robinson TL. Human Performance and Physical Education Department, Adams State College, Alamosa, Colorado, USA. J Strength Cond Res. 2011 Jul;25(7):1804-15.

21. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial.

Smith AE, Walter AA, Graef JL, Kendall KL, Moon JR, Lockwood CM, Fukuda DH, Beck TW, Cramer JT, Stout JR. Metabolic and Body Composition Laboratory, Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2009 Feb 11;6:5.

22. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on the onset of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold in women.

Stout JR, Cramer JT, Zoeller RF, Torok D, Costa P, Hoffman JR, Harris RC, O'Kroy J. Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA. Amino Acids. 2007;32(3):381-6.

23. The effect of beta-alanine supplementation on neuromuscular fatigue in elderly (55-92 Years): a double-blind randomized study.

Stout JR, Graves BS, Smith AE, Hartman MJ, Cramer JT, Beck TW, Harris RC. Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2008 Nov 7;5:21.

24. Short-duration beta-alanine supplementation increases training volume and reduces subjective feelings of fatigue in college football players.

Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA, Faigenbaum AD, Ross R, Kang J, Stout JR, Wise JA. Department of Health and Exercise Science, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ, USA. Nutr Res. 2008 Jan;28(1):31-5.

25. The effect of two β-alanine dosing strategies on 30-minute rowing performance: a randomized, controlled trial.

Beasley L, Smith L, Antonio J, Gordon D, Johnstone J, Roberts J. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018 Dec 18;15(1):59. doi: 10.1186/s12970-018-0266-3.

26. Acute supplementation with alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine augments growth hormone response to, and peak force production during, resistance exercise.

Ziegenfuss T, Landis J, Hofheins J. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2008;5(Suppl 1):P15. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-5-S1-P15.

28. Glycerophosphocholine enhances growth hormone secretion and fat oxidation in young adults.

Kawamura T, Okubo T, Sato K, et al. Nutrition. 2012;28(11-12):1122-1126. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2012.02.011

29. Evaluation of the effects of two doses of alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine on physical and psychomotor performance. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition.

Marcus L, Soileau J, Judge LW, Bellar D. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2017;14:39. doi:10.1186/s12970-017-0196-5.

30. The effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance, skeletal muscle oxygen saturation and associated biochemical parameters in resistance trained men.

Trepanowski JF, Farney TM, McCarthy CG, Schilling BK, Craig SA, Bloomer RJ. Cardiorespiratory/Metabolic Laboratory, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee, USA. J Strength Cond Res. 2011 Dec;25(12):3461-71.

31. Ergogenic effects of betaine supplementation on strength and power performance.

Lee EC, Maresh CM, Kraemer WJ, Yamamoto LM, Hatfield DL, Bailey BL, Armstrong LE, Volek JS, McDermott BP, Craig SA. Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2010 Jul 19;7:27.

32. Artificial Sweeteners: History and New Concepts on Inflammation.

Basson AR, Rodriguez-Palacios A, Cominelli F. Front Nutr. 2021;8:746247. Published 2021 Sep 24. doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.746247.

33. Non-caloric artificial sweeteners and the microbiome: findings and challenges.

Suez J, Korem T, Zilberman-Schapira G, Segal E, Elinav E. Gut Microbes. 2015;6(2):149-155. doi:10.1080/19490976.2015.1017700.

34. What made Canada become a country with the highest incidence of inflammatory bowel disease: could sucralose be the culprit?

Qin X. Department of Surgery, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA. Can J Gastroenterol. 2011 Sep;25(9):511.

35. Artificial Sweeteners Negatively Regulate Pathogenic Characteristics of Two Model Gut Bacteria, E. coli and E. faecalis.

Shil A, Chichger H. Int J Mol Sci. 2021;22(10):5228. Published 2021 May 15. doi:10.3390/ijms22105228.

36. Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota.

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37. High-intensity sweetener consumption and gut microbiome content and predicted gene function in a cross-sectional study of adults in the United States.

Frankenfeld CL, Sikaroodi M, Lamb E, Shoemaker S, Gillevet PM. Ann Epidemiol. 2015;25(10):736-42.e4. doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2015.06.083.

38. Steviol glycosides from Stevia: biosynthesis pathway review and their application in foods and medicine.

Yadav SK, Guleria P. CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, 176061, HP, India. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2012;52(11):988-98.

39. Antioxidant, anti-diabetic and renal protective properties of Stevia rebaudiana.

Shivanna N, Naika M, Khanum F, Kaul VK. Department of Applied Nutrition, Defence Food Research Laboratory, Mysore, India. J Diabetes Complications. 2013 Mar-Apr;27(2):103-13.

40. Safety evaluation of certain food additives.

World Health Organization. WHO Press; 2006. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2006/9241660546_eng.pdf. Accessed January 24, 2019.

41. Effects of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) extract and N-nitro-L-arginine on renal function and ultrastructure of kidney cells in experimental type 2 Diabetes.

Ozbayer C, Kurt H, Kalender S, Ozden H, Gunes HV, Basaran A, Cakmak EA, Civi K, Kalender Y, Degirmenci I. Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey. J Med Food. 2011 Oct;14(10):1215-22.

42. Toxicological significance of azo dye metabolism by human intestinal microbiota.

Feng J, Cerniglia CE, Chen H. Division of Microbiology, National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, AR , USA. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2012 Jan 1;4:568-86.

43. Artificial food dyes and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Kanarek RB. Department of Psychology, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts, USA. Nutr Rev. 2011 Jul;69(7):385-91.

44. Meta-analysis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, restriction diet, and synthetic food color additives.

Nigg JT, Lewis K, Edinger T, Falk M. Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012 Jan;51(1):86-97.e8.

45. Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

McCann D, Barrett A, Cooper A, Crumpler D, Dalen L, Grimshaw K, Kitchin E, Lok K, Porteous L, Prince E, Sonuga-Barke E, Warner JO, Stevenson J. School of Psychology, Department of Child Health, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. Lancet. 2007 Nov 3;370(9598):1560-7.

46. Effect of food azo dye tartrazine on learning and memory functions in mice and rats, and the possible mechanisms involved.

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