The Muscle Growth Stack


Our "No Return Necessary"
Money-Back Guarantee

If you don’t like something of ours, guess what happens next?

No, we don’t request you deliver it to a PO box in the Gobi Desert by carrier pigeon. Nor do we ask you to fill a cursed inkwell with orc’s blood and demon saliva and then use it to complete reams of return forms written in ancient Cyrillic script.

We just . . . wait for it . . . give you your money back. Holy moo cows. And that means you can say "yes" now and decide later.

Will The Muscle Growth Stack help you pack on brain-shrinking amounts of muscle in 30 days flat? No.

Will it add another plate or two to the bar? Absolutely not.

But will it help you train harder, recover faster, and gain more muscle and strength? Yes. Or your money back.

  • Total formulation transparency (no proprietary blends)[8] This means you know exactly what’s in every serving of The Muscle Growth Stack—every dose of every ingredient—and can verify the accuracy and efficacy of the formulation.
  • Certified to contain no banned substances by Labdoor, the gold standard of third-party lab testing[9] Before you buy a sports supplement, you should know that it's clean, safe, and transparent. And that's exactly what Labdoor's third-party testing and certification means.
  • Made in the USA with globally sourced ingredients in NSF-certified and FDA-inspected and cGMP-compliant facilities

The Muscle Growth Stack is also backed by our “No Return Necessary” money-back guarantee that works like this:

If you don’t absolutely love The Muscle Growth Stack, just let us know, and we’ll give you a full refund on the spot. No forms or returns necessary.

So order now, try The Muscle Growth Stack risk free, and see for yourself why we believe it’s the perfect mix of all-natural muscle building supplements (that have sold over 2,000,000 bottles and counting!).

Will The Muscle Growth Stack help you pack on brain-shrinking amounts of muscle in 30 days flat? No.

Will it add another plate or two to the bar? Absolutely not.

But will it help you train harder, recover faster, and gain more muscle and strength? Yes. Or your money back.

  • Total formulation transparency (no proprietary blends)[8] This means you know exactly what’s in every serving of The Muscle Growth Stack—every dose of every ingredient—and can verify the accuracy and efficacy of the formulation.
  • Made in the USA with globally sourced ingredients in NSF-certified and FDA-inspected and cGMP-compliant facilities
  • Backed by our “No Return Necessary” money-back guarantee that works like this: If you don’t absolutely love The Muscle Growth Stack, just let us know, and we’ll give you a full refund on the spot. No forms or returns necessary.

So order now, try The Muscle Growth Stack risk free, and see for yourself why we believe it’s the perfect mix of all-natural muscle building supplements (that have sold over 2,000,000 bottles and counting!).

Will The Muscle Growth Stack help you pack on brain-shrinking amounts of muscle in 30 days flat? No.

Will it add another plate or two to the bar? Absolutely not.

But will it help you train harder, recover faster, and gain more muscle and strength? Yes. Or your money back.

  • Total formulation transparency (no proprietary blends)[8] This means you know exactly what’s in every serving of The Muscle Growth Stack—every dose of every ingredient—and can verify the accuracy and efficacy of the formulation.
  • Made in the USA with globally sourced ingredients in NSF-certified and FDA-inspected and cGMP-compliant facilities
  • Backed by our “No Return Necessary” money-back guarantee that works like this: If you don’t absolutely love The Muscle Growth Stack, just let us know, and we’ll give you a full refund on the spot. No forms or returns necessary.

So order now, try The Muscle Growth Stack risk free, and see for yourself why we believe it’s the perfect mix of all-natural muscle building supplements (that have sold over 2,000,000 bottles and counting!).

Get the only[1] Some popular performance supplements are all-natural. Some contain the right mix of high-quality ingredients. Some provide clinically effective doses. But only The Muscle Growth Stack checks each of these boxes. 100% natural[2] The Muscle Growth Stack doesn’t just “contain natural ingredients''—every ingredient is naturally sourced from plants and animals. The Muscle Growth Stack contains no artificial or synthetic substances of any kind. sports supplement stack with clinically effective doses[3] Every serving of The Muscle Growth Stack contains 44.243.548.247.546.245.5 grams of active ingredients that have been shown to be safe and effective in peer-reviewed scientific research. of 108 scientifically proven ingredients[4] Each active ingredient in The Muscle Growth Stack is backed by published scientific studies that show benefits in healthy humans. for boosting workout performance, gaining more muscle and strength, and recovering faster from your training.

Will The Muscle Growth Stack help you pack on brain-shrinking amounts of muscle in 30 days flat? No.

Will it add another plate or two to the bar? Absolutely not.

But will it help you train harder, recover faster, and gain more muscle and strength? Yes. Or your money back.

  • 837483748677 peer-reviewed scientific studies support The Muscle Growth Stack’s combination of ingredients and doses[5] That’s 807735807735831759 pages of scientific research that shows The Muscle Growth Stack works exactly like we say it does.
  • Contains no artificial sweeteners, flavors, food dyes, or other chemical junk[6] While these types of chemicals may not be as dangerous as some people claim, studies suggest that regular consumption of them may indeed be harmful to our health. And that’s why you won’t find them in The Muscle Growth Stack.
  • Analyzed for purity and potency in a state-of-the-art ISO 17025 accredited lab[7] Every bottle is guaranteed to provide exactly what the label claims and nothing else—no heavy metals, microbes, allergens, or other contaminants.
  • Total formulation transparency (no proprietary blends)[8] This means you know exactly what’s in every serving of The Muscle Growth Stack—every dose of every ingredient—and can verify the accuracy and efficacy of the formulation.
  • Certified to contain no banned substances by Labdoor, the gold standard of third-party lab testing[9] Before you buy a sports supplement, you should know that it's clean, safe, and transparent. And that's exactly what Labdoor's third-party testing and certification means.
  • Made in the USA with globally sourced ingredients in NSF-certified and FDA-inspected and cGMP-compliant facilities

The Muscle Growth Stack is also backed by our “No Return Necessary” money-back guarantee that works like this:

If you don’t absolutely love The Muscle Growth Stack, just let us know, and we’ll give you a full refund on the spot. No forms or returns necessary.

So order now, try The Muscle Growth Stack risk free, and see for yourself why we believe it’s the perfect mix of all-natural muscle building supplements (that have sold over 2,000,000 bottles and counting!).

Whey+ Protein Powder

Casein+ Protein Powder

Plant+ Protein Powder

Summary Ingredients Reviews

Get the only[10] Some popular whey protein powders are all-natural. Some contain 100% whey protein isolate. Some are made with Truly Grass Fed™ milk. But only Whey+ checks each of these boxes. 100% natural[11] Whey+ doesn’t just “contain natural ingredients''—every ingredient is naturally sourced from plants and animals. Whey+ contains no artificial or synthetic substances of any kind. whey protein isolate powder[12] Whey protein isolate is the highest quality whey protein you can buy because it has been processed to remove fat and lactose, making it at least 90% protein by weight (which means it contains minimal calories, carbs, and fat). made with Truly Grass Fed milk[13] Truly Grass Fed™ milk comes from hormone- and antibiotic-free cows that live how nature intended—outside, roaming and grazing on grass. from small dairy farms in Ireland renowned for their superior and sustainable farming practices.[14] Ireland produces some of the healthiest, cleanest milk in the world, and Whey+ comes from farms certified by Ireland’s Sustainable Dairy Assurance Scheme, which ensures the farmers adhere to best practices in animal welfare, sustainability, product quality, traceability, and soil and grass management.

  • 15 peer-reviewed scientific studies support Whey+’s ingredients[15] That’s 807 pages of scientific research that shows Whey+ works exactly like we say it does.
  • Contains no artificial sweeteners, flavors, food dyes, or other chemical junk[16] While these types of chemicals may not be as dangerous as some people claim, studies suggest that regular consumption of them may indeed be harmful to our health. And that’s why you won’t find them in Whey+.
  • Analyzed for purity and potency in a state-of-the-art ISO 17025 accredited lab[17] Every bottle is guaranteed to provide exactly what the label claims and nothing else—no heavy metals, microbes, allergens, or other contaminants.
  • Made with pure Truly Grass Fed milk from hormone- and antibiotic-free cows that live the way nature intended—outside, roaming and grazing on grass[18] Studies show that the more grass cows eat (instead of other types of feed such as grains or soybeans), the more nutritious their milk and beef is.
  • Total formulation transparency (no proprietary blends)[19] This means you know exactly what’s in every serving of Whey+—every dose of every ingredient—and can verify the accuracy and efficacy of the formulation.
  • Certified to contain no banned substances by Labdoor, the gold standard of third-party lab testing[20] Before you buy a sports supplement, you should know that it's clean, safe, and transparent. And that's exactly what Labdoor's third-party testing and certification means.
  • Made in the USA with globally sourced ingredients in NSF-certified and FDA-inspected and cGMP-compliant facilities
Summary Ingredients Reviews

Get the only[null] Some popular casein protein powders are all-natural. Some contain 100% micellar casein. Some are made with Truly Grass Fed™ milk. But only Casein+ checks each of these boxes. 100% natural[null] Casein+ doesn’t just “contain natural ingredients''—every ingredient is naturally sourced from plants and animals. Casein+ contains no artificial or synthetic substances of any kind. micellar casein powder[null] Micellar casein is the highest quality form of casein protein you can buy because it has been produced in a way that maximally preserves its slow-digesting properties. made with Truly Grass Fed™[null] Truly Grass Fed™ milk comes from hormone- and antibiotic-free cows that live how nature intended—outside, roaming and grazing on grass. milk from small dairy farms in Ireland renowned for their healthy and sustainable farming practices.[null] Ireland produces some of the healthiest, cleanest milk in the world, and Casein+ comes from farms certified by Ireland’s Sustainable Dairy Assurance Scheme, which ensures the farmers adhere to best practices in animal welfare, sustainability, product quality, traceability, and soil and grass management.

  • 15 peer-reviewed scientific studies support Casein+’s ingredients[null] That’s 187 pages of scientific research that shows Casein+ works exactly like we say it does.
  • Contains no artificial sweeteners, flavors, food dyes, or other chemical junk[null] While these types of chemicals may not be as dangerous as some people claim, studies suggest that regular consumption of them may indeed be harmful to our health. And that’s why you won’t find them in Casein+.
  • Analyzed for purity and potency in a state-of-the-art ISO 17025 accredited lab[null] Every bottle of Casein+ is guaranteed to provide exactly what the label claims and nothing else—no heavy metals, microbes, allergens, or other contaminants.
  • Made with pure Truly Grass Fed™ milk from hormone- and antibiotic-free cows that live the way nature intended—outside, roaming and grazing on grass[null] Studies show that the more grass cows eat (instead of other types of feed such as grains or soybeans), the more nutritious their milk and beef is.
  • Total formulation transparency (no proprietary blends)[null] This means you know exactly what’s in every serving of Casein+—every dose of every ingredient—and can verify the accuracy and efficacy of the formulation.
  • Made in the USA with globally sourced ingredients in NSF-certified and FDA-inspected and cGMP-compliant facilities
Summary Ingredients Reviews

Get our 100% natural[null] Plant+ doesn’t just “contain natural ingredients''—every ingredient is naturally sourced from plants and animals. Plant+ contains no artificial or synthetic substances of any kind. and vegan-friendly plant-based protein powder with a premium blend of rice and pea protein[null] When combined, rice and pea protein are often called the “vegan’s whey” because their robust amino acid profile is similar to whey protein. and no animal-derived ingredients or added sugars.

  • 18 peer-reviewed scientific studies support Plant+’s ingredients[null] That’s 211 pages of scientific research that shows Plant+ works exactly like we say it does.
  • Contains no artificial sweeteners, flavors, food dyes, or other chemical junk[null] While these types of chemicals may not be as dangerous as some people claim, studies suggest that regular consumption of them may indeed be harmful to our health. And that’s why you won’t find them in Plant+.
  • Analyzed for purity and potency in a state-of-the-art ISO 17025 accredited lab[null] Every bottle of Plant+ is guaranteed to provide exactly what the label claims and nothing else—no heavy metals, microbes, allergens, or other contaminants.
  • Total formulation transparency (no proprietary blends)[null] This means you know exactly what’s in every serving of Plant+—every dose of every ingredient—and can verify the accuracy and efficacy of the formulation.
  • Made in the USA with globally sourced ingredients in NSF-certified and FDA-inspected and cGMP-compliant facilities
  • Backed by our “No Return Necessary” money-back guarantee that works like this: If you don’t absolutely love Plant+, just let us know, and we’ll give you a full refund on the spot. No forms or returns necessary.

Pulse Pre-Workout

Pulse Stim-Free Pre-Workout

Recharge Post-Workout

Notice to California Consumers

WARNING: Consuming this product can expose you to chemicals including lead which is known to the State of California to cause cancer and birth defects or other reproductive harm. For more information go to www.P65Warnings.ca.gov/food.

See how Legion compares to the rest.

Whey+Protein Powder Casein+Protein Powder Plant+Protein Powder PulsePre-Workout PulseStim-Free RechargePost-Workout
  • Protein Per Serving
  • Calories Per Serving
  • 100% Whey Protein Isolate
  • Certified Truly
    Grass-Fed™
  • No Added Sugars
  • Natural Ingredients
  • Naturally Sweetened
    & Flavored
  • Lab Tested
  • Labdoor Ranking
  • Price Per Serving
  • Legion Whey+
    Protein Powder

    Whey+ Protein Powder
  • 21–23 g
  • 100–130
  • true
  • true
  • true
  • true
  • true
  • true
  • A
  • $1.601.60
  • Gold Standard
    100% Whey

    Gold Standard 100% Whey
  • 24 g
  • 110–130
  • close
  • close
  • true
  • close
  • close
  • close
  • C
  • $1.21
  • Pro JYM
    Protein Blend

    Pro JYM Protein Blend
  • 24 g
  • 140–170
  • close
  • close
  • true
  • close
  • close
  • close
  • close
  • $1.40
  • PEScience
    Select Protein

    PEScience Select
  • 23–24 g
  • 120
  • close
  • close
  • true
  • close
  • close
  • close
  • close
  • $1.30
  • Protein Per Serving
  • Calories Per Serving
  • 100% Micellar Casein Protein
  • Certified Truly
    Grass-Fed™
  • No Added Sugars
  • Natural Ingredients
  • Naturally Sweetened
    & Flavored
  • Lab Tested
  • Labdoor
    Certified Brand
  • Price Per Serving
  • Legion Casein+
    Protein Powder

    Casein+ Protein Powder
  • 25–26 g
  • 110–140
  • true
  • true
  • true
  • true
  • true
  • true
  • true
  • $1.601.60
  • Gold Standard
    100% Casein

    Gold Standard 100% Casein
  • 24 g
  • 120
  • true
  • close
  • true
  • close
  • close
  • close
  • close
  • $1.44
  • Pro JYM
    Protein Blend

    Pro JYM Protein Powder
  • 24 g
  • 140–170
  • close
  • close
  • true
  • close
  • close
  • close
  • close
  • $1.40
  • PEScience
    Select Protein

    PEScience Select
  • 23–24 g
  • 120
  • close
  • close
  • true
  • close
  • close
  • close
  • close
  • $1.30
  • Protein Per Serving
  • Calories Per Serving
  • Pea & Rice Protein
  • No Added Sugars
  • Natural Ingredients
  • Naturally Sweetened
    & Flavored
  • Lab Tested
  • Labdoor Certified Brand
  • Price Per Serving
  • Legion
    Plant+

    Legion Plant+
  • 24–25 g
  • 130–140
  • True
  • True
  • True
  • True
  • True
  • True
  • $2.002.00
  • Vega
    Protein

    Vega
  • 15 g
  • 100
  • False
  • False
  • True
  • True
  • Question Mark
  • False
  • $1.20
  • Plant
    Jym

    Jym Protein
  • 24 g
  • 140
  • True
  • True
  • False
  • False
  • Question Mark
  • False
  • $1.67
  • PEScience Select
    Plant Protein

    PEScience
  • 20 g
  • 100–130
  • True
  • True
  • False
  • False
  • Question Mark
  • False
  • $1.48

The #1 brand of all-natural sports supplements.

Over 4,000,000 bottles sold to over 800,000 customers who have left us over 45,000 5-star reviews.

Natural Ingredients
No Chemical Junk

The Muscle Growth Stack doesn't just “contain natural ingredients”—every ingredient is naturally sourced. We don’t use artificial or synthetic substances of any kind.

Clinically Effective Doses
Clinically Effective Ingredients & Doses

Every ingredient and dose (important!) in The Muscle Growth Stack is backed by peer-reviewed scientific research demonstrating clear benefits.

Naturally Sweetened & Flavored
Naturally Sweetened & Flavored

The Muscle Growth Stack is naturally sweetened and flavored with healthy, plant-based sweeteners and flavors.

Lab Tested
Lab Tested

The Muscle Growth Stack is tested by third-party labs for heavy metals, microbes, allergens, and other contaminants to ensure it meets FDA purity standards.

Made in USA
Made in USA with Globally Sourced Ingredients

The Muscle Growth Stack is proudly made in America in NSF-certified and FDA-inspected facilities in accordance with the Current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) regulations.

100% Money-Back-Guarantee
"No Return Necessary"
Money-Back Guarantee

If you don't absolutely love The Muscle Growth Stack, you get a prompt and courteous refund. No forms or returns necessary.

Trusted by scientists, doctors, and everyday fitness folk alike.

Previous
  • Dr. Spencer Nadolsky, MD

    Board-Certified Family Medicine Physician, a Diplomate of the American Board of Obesity Medicine, and Legion Advisory Board Member

    "There are a lot of sleazy supplement companies out there, but Legion is not one of them. Their products are free of fillers and inactive ingredients and they take the time (and money) to test them with independent labs to ensure you're getting what you pay for."

  • Menno Henselmans, MS

    Founder of Bayesian Bodybuilding, Published Scientist, Physique Coach, and Legion Advisory Board Member

    "Legion consults with nutrition experts to make honest, science-based products and then proves they're genuine with independent lab work. That's how all supplement companies should operate."

  • Dr. Bill Campbell, PhD

    Professor of Exercise Science at University of South Florida and Legion Advisory Board Member

    "Legion is science-based at its core. All of their products contain doses proven to be effective by scientific studies, and they fund new research. They don't just want to sell you supplements—they want to change the supplement industry for the better."

  • James Krieger, MS

    Published Scientist, Author, and Speaker

    "There are three reasons I like Legion. First, they use ingredients backed by independent, peer-reviewed scientific studies. Second, the quality of their supplements exceeds many in the industry and you know you’re getting what’s on the label. Third, Mike Matthews is a solid evidence-based guy who doesn’t over-hype."

  • Chris Barakat, MS

    Published Scientist and Physique Coach

    "I've been involved in the supplement industry for over a decade now, and I can tell you that Legion is the ONLY company doing EVERYTHING right! They make effective products that are backed by scientific evidence, properly dose all of their ingredients, source every ingredient from the highest-quality sources, and are transparent about exactly what goes in each and every product."

  • Kurtis Frank

    Co-Founder and Former Lead Researcher & Writer of Examine.com

    "With Legion, you really do get what you pay for. Each and every product is packed with effective doses of effective ingredients, and what’s on the label is what's actually in the bottle."

  • Jordan Syatt

    Strength and Nutrition Coach

    "Legion is a tremendous company run by people I trust and respect. The quality of their supplements is second to no one. And while I don’t use many supplements, the only ones I do come from Legion."

  • Sal Di Stefano, Justin Andrews, and Adam Schafer

    Hosts of The Mind Pump Podcast

    "When it comes to quality and integrity, Legion is among the best. Their products only include ingredients that are backed by research and in doses that are proven to be effective in scientific studies."

Next

Frequently Asked Questions

How do I use The Muscle Growth Stack?
Is The Muscle Growth Stack for men and women?
Should I use The Muscle Growth Stack when I’m dieting for fat loss or only when I’m dieting for muscle growth?
Can I take these products while pregnant/nursing?
Should I choose Pulse with or without caffeine?
Should I take these products every day or only on training days?
How quickly will I see results?
Is The Muscle Growth Stack gluten-free, vegetarian, or vegan?

+References

1.

Some popular performance supplements are all-natural. Some contain the right mix of high-quality ingredients. Some provide clinically effective doses. But only The Muscle Growth Stack checks each of these boxes.

2.

The Muscle Growth Stack doesn’t just “contain natural ingredients''—every ingredient is naturally sourced from plants and animals. The Muscle Growth Stack contains no artificial or synthetic substances of any kind.

3.

Every serving of The Muscle Growth Stack contains 44.243.548.247.546.245.5 grams of active ingredients that have been shown to be safe and effective in peer-reviewed scientific research.

4.

Each active ingredient in The Muscle Growth Stack is backed by published scientific studies that show benefits in healthy humans.

5.

That’s 807735807735831759 pages of scientific research that shows The Muscle Growth Stack works exactly like we say it does.

6.

While these types of chemicals may not be as dangerous as some people claim, studies suggest that regular consumption of them may indeed be harmful to our health. And that’s why you won’t find them in The Muscle Growth Stack.

7.

Every bottle is guaranteed to provide exactly what the label claims and nothing else—no heavy metals, microbes, allergens, or other contaminants.

8.

This means you know exactly what’s in every serving of The Muscle Growth Stack—every dose of every ingredient—and can verify the accuracy and efficacy of the formulation.

9.

Before you buy a sports supplement, you should know that it's clean, safe, and transparent. And that's exactly what Labdoor's third-party testing and certification means.

10.

Some popular whey protein powders are all-natural. Some contain 100% whey protein isolate. Some are made with Truly Grass Fed™ milk. But only Whey+ checks each of these boxes.

11.

Whey+ doesn’t just “contain natural ingredients''—every ingredient is naturally sourced from plants and animals. Whey+ contains no artificial or synthetic substances of any kind.

12.

Whey protein isolate is the highest quality whey protein you can buy because it has been processed to remove fat and lactose, making it at least 90% protein by weight (which means it contains minimal calories, carbs, and fat).

13.

Truly Grass Fed™ milk comes from hormone- and antibiotic-free cows that live how nature intended—outside, roaming and grazing on grass.

14.

Ireland produces some of the healthiest, cleanest milk in the world, and Whey+ comes from farms certified by Ireland’s Sustainable Dairy Assurance Scheme, which ensures the farmers adhere to best practices in animal welfare, sustainability, product quality, traceability, and soil and grass management.

15.

That’s 187 pages of scientific research that shows Whey+ works exactly like we say it does.

16.

While these types of chemicals may not be as dangerous as some people claim, studies suggest that regular consumption of them may indeed be harmful to our health. And that’s why you won’t find them in Whey+.

17.

Every bottle of Whey+ is guaranteed to provide exactly what the label claims and nothing else—no heavy metals, microbes, allergens, or other contaminants.

18.

Studies show that the more grass cows eat (instead of other types of feed such as grains or soybeans), the more nutritious their milk and beef is.

19.

This means you know exactly what’s in every serving of Whey+—every dose of every ingredient—and can verify the accuracy and efficacy of the formulation.

20.

Before you buy a sports supplement, you should know that it's clean, safe, and transparent. And that's exactly what Labdoor's third-party testing and certification means.

21. Artificial Sweeteners: History and New Concepts on Inflammation.

Basson AR, Rodriguez-Palacios A, Cominelli F. Front Nutr. 2021;8:746247. Published 2021 Sep 24. doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.746247.

22. Non-caloric artificial sweeteners and the microbiome: findings and challenges.

Suez J, Korem T, Zilberman-Schapira G, Segal E, Elinav E. Gut Microbes. 2015;6(2):149-155. doi:10.1080/19490976.2015.1017700.

23. What made Canada become a country with the highest incidence of inflammatory bowel disease: could sucralose be the culprit?

Qin X. Department of Surgery, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA. Can J Gastroenterol. 2011 Sep;25(9):511.

24. Artificial Sweeteners Negatively Regulate Pathogenic Characteristics of Two Model Gut Bacteria, E. coli and E. faecalis.

Shil A, Chichger H. Int J Mol Sci. 2021;22(10):5228. Published 2021 May 15. doi:10.3390/ijms22105228.

25. Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota.

Suez J, Korem T, Zeevi D, et al. Nature. 2014;514(7521):181-186. doi:10.1038/nature13793.

26. High-intensity sweetener consumption and gut microbiome content and predicted gene function in a cross-sectional study of adults in the United States.

Frankenfeld CL, Sikaroodi M, Lamb E, Shoemaker S, Gillevet PM. Ann Epidemiol. 2015;25(10):736-42.e4. doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2015.06.083.

27. Steviol glycosides from Stevia: biosynthesis pathway review and their application in foods and medicine.

Yadav SK, Guleria P. CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, 176061, HP, India. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2012;52(11):988-98.

28. Antioxidant, anti-diabetic and renal protective properties of Stevia rebaudiana.

Shivanna N, Naika M, Khanum F, Kaul VK. Department of Applied Nutrition, Defence Food Research Laboratory, Mysore, India. J Diabetes Complications. 2013 Mar-Apr;27(2):103-13.

29. Safety evaluation of certain food additives.

World Health Organization. WHO Press; 2006. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2006/9241660546_eng.pdf. Accessed January 24, 2019.

30. Effects of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) extract and N-nitro-L-arginine on renal function and ultrastructure of kidney cells in experimental type 2 Diabetes.

Ozbayer C, Kurt H, Kalender S, Ozden H, Gunes HV, Basaran A, Cakmak EA, Civi K, Kalender Y, Degirmenci I. Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey. J Med Food. 2011 Oct;14(10):1215-22.

31. Toxicological significance of azo dye metabolism by human intestinal microbiota.

Feng J, Cerniglia CE, Chen H. Division of Microbiology, National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, AR , USA. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2012 Jan 1;4:568-86.

32. Artificial food dyes and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Kanarek RB. Department of Psychology, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts, USA. Nutr Rev. 2011 Jul;69(7):385-91.

33. Meta-analysis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, restriction diet, and synthetic food color additives.

Nigg JT, Lewis K, Edinger T, Falk M. Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012 Jan;51(1):86-97.e8.

34. Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

McCann D, Barrett A, Cooper A, Crumpler D, Dalen L, Grimshaw K, Kitchin E, Lok K, Porteous L, Prince E, Sonuga-Barke E, Warner JO, Stevenson J. School of Psychology, Department of Child Health, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. Lancet. 2007 Nov 3;370(9598):1560-7.

35. Effect of food azo dye tartrazine on learning and memory functions in mice and rats, and the possible mechanisms involved.

Gao Y, Li C, Shen J, Yin H, An X, Jin H. Scientific and Technological College of Chemistry and Biology, Yantai Univ., Yantai, PR China. J Food Sci. 2011 Aug;76(6):T125-9.

null.

Some popular casein protein powders are all-natural. Some contain 100% micellar casein. Some are made with Truly Grass Fed milk. But only Casein+ checks each of these boxes.

null.

Casein+ doesn’t just “contain natural ingredients''—every ingredient is naturally sourced from plants and animals. Casein+ contains no artificial or synthetic substances of any kind.

null.

Micellar casein is the highest quality form of casein protein you can buy because it has been produced in a way that maximally preserves its slow-digesting properties.

null.

Truly Grass Fed milk comes from hormone- and antibiotic-free cows that live how nature intended—outside, roaming and grazing on grass.

null.

Ireland produces some of the healthiest, cleanest milk in the world, and Casein+ comes from farms certified by Ireland’s Sustainable Dairy Assurance Scheme, which ensures the farmers adhere to best practices in animal welfare, sustainability, product quality, traceability, and soil and grass management.

null.

That’s 187 pages of scientific research that shows Casein+ works exactly like we say it does.

null.

While these types of chemicals may not be as dangerous as some people claim, studies suggest that regular consumption of them may indeed be harmful to our health. And that’s why you won’t find them in Casein+.

null.

Every bottle of Casein+ is guaranteed to provide exactly what the label claims and nothing else—no heavy metals, microbes, allergens, or other contaminants.

null.

Studies show that the more grass cows eat (instead of other types of feed such as grains or soybeans), the more nutritious their milk and beef is.

null.

This means you know exactly what’s in every serving of Casein+—every dose of every ingredient—and can verify the accuracy and efficacy of the formulation.

null. Artificial Sweeteners: History and New Concepts on Inflammation.

Basson AR, Rodriguez-Palacios A, Cominelli F. Front Nutr. 2021;8:746247. Published 2021 Sep 24. doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.746247.

null. Non-caloric artificial sweeteners and the microbiome: findings and challenges.

Suez J, Korem T, Zilberman-Schapira G, Segal E, Elinav E. Gut Microbes. 2015;6(2):149-155. doi:10.1080/19490976.2015.1017700.

null. What made Canada become a country with the highest incidence of inflammatory bowel disease: could sucralose be the culprit?

Qin X. Department of Surgery, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA. Can J Gastroenterol. 2011 Sep;25(9):511.

null. Artificial Sweeteners Negatively Regulate Pathogenic Characteristics of Two Model Gut Bacteria, E. coli and E. faecalis.

Shil A, Chichger H. Int J Mol Sci. 2021;22(10):5228. Published 2021 May 15. doi:10.3390/ijms22105228.

null. Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota.

Suez J, Korem T, Zeevi D, et al. Nature. 2014;514(7521):181-186. doi:10.1038/nature13793.

null. High-intensity sweetener consumption and gut microbiome content and predicted gene function in a cross-sectional study of adults in the United States.

Frankenfeld CL, Sikaroodi M, Lamb E, Shoemaker S, Gillevet PM. Ann Epidemiol. 2015;25(10):736-42.e4. doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2015.06.083.

null. Steviol glycosides from Stevia: biosynthesis pathway review and their application in foods and medicine.

Yadav SK, Guleria P. CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, 176061, HP, India. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2012;52(11):988-98.

null. Antioxidant, anti-diabetic and renal protective properties of Stevia rebaudiana.

Shivanna N, Naika M, Khanum F, Kaul VK. Department of Applied Nutrition, Defence Food Research Laboratory, Mysore, India. J Diabetes Complications. 2013 Mar-Apr;27(2):103-13.

null. Safety evaluation of certain food additives.

World Health Organization. WHO Press; 2006. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2006/9241660546_eng.pdf. Accessed January 24, 2019.

null. Effects of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) extract and N-nitro-L-arginine on renal function and ultrastructure of kidney cells in experimental type 2 Diabetes.

Ozbayer C, Kurt H, Kalender S, Ozden H, Gunes HV, Basaran A, Cakmak EA, Civi K, Kalender Y, Degirmenci I. Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey. J Med Food. 2011 Oct;14(10):1215-22.

null. Toxicological significance of azo dye metabolism by human intestinal microbiota.

Feng J, Cerniglia CE, Chen H. Division of Microbiology, National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, AR , USA. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2012 Jan 1;4:568-86.

null. Artificial food dyes and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Kanarek RB. Department of Psychology, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts, USA. Nutr Rev. 2011 Jul;69(7):385-91.

null. Meta-analysis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, restriction diet, and synthetic food color additives.

Nigg JT, Lewis K, Edinger T, Falk M. Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012 Jan;51(1):86-97.e8.

null. Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

McCann D, Barrett A, Cooper A, Crumpler D, Dalen L, Grimshaw K, Kitchin E, Lok K, Porteous L, Prince E, Sonuga-Barke E, Warner JO, Stevenson J. School of Psychology, Department of Child Health, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. Lancet. 2007 Nov 3;370(9598):1560-7.

null. Effect of food azo dye tartrazine on learning and memory functions in mice and rats, and the possible mechanisms involved.

Gao Y, Li C, Shen J, Yin H, An X, Jin H. Scientific and Technological College of Chemistry and Biology, Yantai Univ., Yantai, PR China. J Food Sci. 2011 Aug;76(6):T125-9.

null.

Plant+ doesn’t just “contain natural ingredients''—every ingredient is naturally sourced from plants and animals. Plant+ contains no artificial or synthetic substances of any kind.

null.

When combined, rice and pea protein are often called the “vegan’s whey” because their robust amino acid profile is similar to whey protein.

null.

That’s 211 pages of scientific research that shows Plant+ works exactly like we say it does.

null.

While these types of chemicals may not be as dangerous as some people claim, studies suggest that regular consumption of them may indeed be harmful to our health. And that’s why you won’t find them in Plant+.

null.

Every bottle of Plant+ is guaranteed to provide exactly what the label claims and nothing else—no heavy metals, microbes, allergens, or other contaminants.

null.

This means you know exactly what’s in every serving of Plant+—every dose of every ingredient—and can verify the accuracy and efficacy of the formulation.

null. The effects of 8 weeks of whey or rice protein supplementation on body composition and exercise performance.

Joy JM, Lowery RP, Wilson JM, Purpura M, De Souza EO, Wilson SM, Kalman DS, Dudeck JE, Jäger R. Nutr J. 2013 Jun 20;12:86. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-12-86.

null. The influence of the albumin fraction on the bioavailability and postprandial utilization of pea protein given selectively to humans.

Mariotti F, Pueyo ME, Tomé D, Bérot S, Benamouzig R, Mahé S. J Nutr. 2001 Jun;131(6):1706-13. doi: 10.1093/jn/131.6.1706.

null. Artificial Sweeteners: History and New Concepts on Inflammation.

Basson AR, Rodriguez-Palacios A, Cominelli F. Front Nutr. 2021;8:746247. Published 2021 Sep 24. doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.746247.

null. Non-caloric artificial sweeteners and the microbiome: findings and challenges.

Suez J, Korem T, Zilberman-Schapira G, Segal E, Elinav E. Gut Microbes. 2015;6(2):149-155. doi:10.1080/19490976.2015.1017700.

null. What made Canada become a country with the highest incidence of inflammatory bowel disease: could sucralose be the culprit?

Qin X. Department of Surgery, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA. Can J Gastroenterol. 2011 Sep;25(9):511.

null. Artificial Sweeteners Negatively Regulate Pathogenic Characteristics of Two Model Gut Bacteria, E. coli and E. faecalis.

Shil A, Chichger H. Int J Mol Sci. 2021;22(10):5228. Published 2021 May 15. doi:10.3390/ijms22105228.

null. Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota.

Suez J, Korem T, Zeevi D, et al. Nature. 2014;514(7521):181-186. doi:10.1038/nature13793.

null. High-intensity sweetener consumption and gut microbiome content and predicted gene function in a cross-sectional study of adults in the United States.

Frankenfeld CL, Sikaroodi M, Lamb E, Shoemaker S, Gillevet PM. Ann Epidemiol. 2015;25(10):736-42.e4. doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2015.06.083.

null. Steviol glycosides from Stevia: biosynthesis pathway review and their application in foods and medicine.

Yadav SK, Guleria P. CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, 176061, HP, India. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2012;52(11):988-98.

null. Antioxidant, anti-diabetic and renal protective properties of Stevia rebaudiana.

Shivanna N, Naika M, Khanum F, Kaul VK. Department of Applied Nutrition, Defence Food Research Laboratory, Mysore, India. J Diabetes Complications. 2013 Mar-Apr;27(2):103-13.

null. Safety evaluation of certain food additives.

World Health Organization. WHO Press; 2006. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2006/9241660546_eng.pdf. Accessed January 24, 2019.

null. Effects of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) extract and N-nitro-L-arginine on renal function and ultrastructure of kidney cells in experimental type 2 Diabetes.

Ozbayer C, Kurt H, Kalender S, Ozden H, Gunes HV, Basaran A, Cakmak EA, Civi K, Kalender Y, Degirmenci I. Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey. J Med Food. 2011 Oct;14(10):1215-22.

null. Toxicological significance of azo dye metabolism by human intestinal microbiota.

Feng J, Cerniglia CE, Chen H. Division of Microbiology, National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, AR , USA. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2012 Jan 1;4:568-86.

null. Artificial food dyes and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Kanarek RB. Department of Psychology, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts, USA. Nutr Rev. 2011 Jul;69(7):385-91.

null. Meta-analysis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, restriction diet, and synthetic food color additives.

Nigg JT, Lewis K, Edinger T, Falk M. Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012 Jan;51(1):86-97.e8.

null. Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

McCann D, Barrett A, Cooper A, Crumpler D, Dalen L, Grimshaw K, Kitchin E, Lok K, Porteous L, Prince E, Sonuga-Barke E, Warner JO, Stevenson J. School of Psychology, Department of Child Health, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. Lancet. 2007 Nov 3;370(9598):1560-7.

null. Effect of food azo dye tartrazine on learning and memory functions in mice and rats, and the possible mechanisms involved.

Gao Y, Li C, Shen J, Yin H, An X, Jin H. Scientific and Technological College of Chemistry and Biology, Yantai Univ., Yantai, PR China. J Food Sci. 2011 Aug;76(6):T125-9.

36.

Some popular pre-workouts are all-natural. Some contain the right mix of high-quality ingredients. Some provide clinically effective doses. But only Pulse checks each of these boxes.

37.

Pulse doesn’t just “contain natural ingredients''—every ingredient is naturally sourced from plants and animals. Pulse contains no artificial or synthetic substances of any kind.

38.

Every serving of Pulse contains 15.1 grams of active ingredients that have been shown to be safe and effective in peer-reviewed scientific research.

39.

Every active ingredient in Pulse is backed by published scientific studies that show benefits in healthy humans.

40.

Pulse contains no harsh stimulants that wind you up and burn you out. Instead, it contains a 1:1 ratio of caffeine and L-theanine, which produces a smooth energy rush and comfortable comedown.

41.

That’s 508 pages of scientific research that shows Pulse works the way we say it does.

42.

While these types of chemicals may not be as dangerous as some people claim, studies suggest that regular consumption of them may indeed be harmful to our health. And that’s why you won’t find them in Pulse.

43.

Every bottle of Pulse is guaranteed to provide exactly what the label claims and nothing else—no heavy metals, microbes, allergens, or other contaminants.

44.

This means you know exactly what’s in every serving of Pulse—every dose of every ingredient—and can verify the accuracy and efficacy of the formulation.

45.

Before you buy a sports supplement, you should know that it's clean, safe, and transparent. And that's exactly what Labdoor's third-party testing and certification means.

46. Caffeine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of its thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers.

Astrup A, Toubro S, Cannon S, Hein P, Breum L, Madsen J. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;51(5):759-767. doi:10.1093/ajcn/51.5.759.

47. Effect of caffeine ingestion on one-repetition maximum muscular strength.

Astorino TA, Rohmann RL, Firth K. Department of Kinesiology, CSU - San Marcos, San Marcos, CA. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2008 Jan;102(2):127-32.

48. The acute effects of a caffeine-containing supplement on strength, muscular endurance, and anaerobic capabilities.

Beck TW, Housh TJ, Schmidt RJ, Johnson GO, Housh DJ, Coburn JW, Malek MH. Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences, Human Performance Laboratory, University of Nebraska-Lincoln. J Strength Cond Res. 2006 Aug;20(3):506-10.

49. Effect of caffeine on sport-specific endurance performance: a systematic review.

Ganio MS, Klau JF, Casa DJ, Armstrong LE, Maresh CM. Department of Kinesiology, Human Performance Laboratory, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, USA. J Strength Cond Res. 2009 Jan;23(1):315-24.

50. L-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses.

Kimura K, Ozeki M, Juneja LR, Ohira H. Nagoya University Department of Psychology, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8601, Japan. Biol Psychol. 2007 Jan;74(1):39-45.

51. L-theanine promotes nitric oxide production in endothelial cells through eNOS phosphorylation.

Siamwala JH, Dias PM, Majumder S, Joshi MK, Sinkar VP, Banerjee G, Chatterjee S. Vascular Biology Lab, AU-KBC Research Centre, Anna University, MIT Campus, Chennai, India. J Nutr Biochem. 2013 Mar;24(3):595-605.

52. Psychological effects of dietary components of tea: caffeine and L-theanine.

Bryan J. School of Psychology, University of South Australia, Adelaide, 5001, South Australia, Australia. Nutr Rev. 2008 Feb;66(2):82-90.

53. L-theanine and caffeine improve task switching but not intersensory attention or subjective alertness.

Einöther SJ, Martens VE, Rycroft JA, De Bruin EA. Sensation, Perception & Behaviour, Unilever R&D Vlaardingen, Vlaardingen, The Netherlands. Appetite. 2010 Apr;54(2):406-9.

54. The effects of L-theanine on alpha-band oscillatory brain activity during a visuo-spatial attention task.

Gomez-Ramirez M, Kelly SP, Montesi JL, Foxe JJ. Program in Cognitive Neuroscience and Schizophrenia, The Cognitive Neurophysiology Laboratory, Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY, USA. Brain Topogr. 2009 Jun;22(1):44-51.

55. l-Theanine and caffeine improve target-specific attention to visual stimuli by decreasing mind wandering: a human functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

Kahathuduwa CN, Dhanasekara CS, Chin S-H, et al. Nutr Res. 2018;49:67-78. doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2017.11.002.

56. Nitric oxide synthases: regulation and function (Articulo de revision).

Förstermann U, Sessa WC. Eur Heart J. 2012;33(7):829-837, 837a-837d. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehr304.

57. Vascular nitric oxide: Beyond eNOS.

Zhao Y, Vanhoutte PM, Leung SWS. J Pharmacol Sci. 2015;129(2):83-94. doi:10.1016/j.jphs.2015.09.002.

58. Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness.

Pérez-Guisado J, Jakeman PM. Department of Medicine, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain. J Strength Cond Res. 2010 May;24(5):1215-22.

59. Acute citrulline malate supplementation improves upper- and lower-body submaximal weightlifting exercise performance in resistance-trained females.

Glenn JM, Gray M, Wethington LN, Stone MS, Stewart RW, Moyen NE. Eur J Nutr. 2017;56(2):775-784. doi:10.1007/s00394-015-1124-6.

60. Acute citrulline-malate supplementation improves maximal strength and anaerobic power in female, masters athletes tennis players.

Glenn JM, Gray M, Jensen A, Stone MS, Vincenzo JL. Eur J Sport Sci. 2016;16(8):1095-1103. doi:10.1080/17461391.2016.1158321.

61. Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness.

Pérez-Guisado J, Jakeman PM. Department of Medicine, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain. J Strength Cond Res. 2010 May;24(5):1215-22.

62. Citrulline/malate promotes aerobic energy production in human exercising muscle.

Bendahan D, Mattei JP, Ghattas B, Confort-Gouny S, Le Guern ME, Cozzone PJ. Centre de Résonance Magnétique Biologique et Médicale, Faculté de Médecine de la Timone, France. Br J Sports Med. 2002 Aug;36(4):282-9.

63. Oral L-citrulline supplementation enhances cycling time trial performance in healthy trained men: Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled 2-way crossover study.

Suzuki T, Morita M, Kobayashi Y, Kamimura A. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016;13:6. doi:10.1186/s12970-016-0117-z.

64. Influence of oral beta-alanine and L-histidine supplementation on the carnosine content of the gluteus medius.

Dunnett M, Harris RC. Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, UK. Equine Vet J Suppl. 1999 Jul;(30):499-504.

65. The biological role of carnosine and its possible applications in medicine.

Budzeń S, Rymaszewska J. Adv Clin Exp Med. 22(5):739-744.

66. beta-Alanine supplementation augments muscle carnosine content and attenuates fatigue during repeated isokinetic contraction bouts in trained sprinters.

Derave W, Ozdemir MS, Harris RC, Pottier A, Reyngoudt H, Koppo K, Wise JA, Achten E. Dept. of Movement and Sport Sciences, Ghent Univ, Belgium. J Appl Physiol. 2007 Nov;103(5):1736-43.

67. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on the onset of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold in women.

Stout JR, Cramer JT, Zoeller RF, Torok D, Costa P, Hoffman JR, Harris RC, O'Kroy J. Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA. Amino Acids. 2007;32(3):381-6.

68. The effect of beta-alanine supplementation on neuromuscular fatigue in elderly (55-92 Years): a double-blind randomized study.

Stout JR, Graves BS, Smith AE, Hartman MJ, Cramer JT, Beck TW, Harris RC. Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2008 Nov 7;5:21.

69. Short-duration beta-alanine supplementation increases training volume and reduces subjective feelings of fatigue in college football players.

Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA, Faigenbaum AD, Ross R, Kang J, Stout JR, Wise JA. Department of Health and Exercise Science, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ, USA. Nutr Res. 2008 Jan;28(1):31-5.

70. Influence of beta-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity.

Hill CA, Harris RC, Kim HJ, Harris BD, Sale C, Boobis LH, Kim CK, Wise JA. School of Sports, Exercise & Health Sciences, University of Chichester, Chichester, UK. Amino Acids. 2007 Feb;32(2):225-33.

71. Effect of β-alanine plus sodium bicarbonate on high-intensity cycling capacity.

Sale C, Saunders B, Hudson S, Wise JA, Harris RC, Sunderland CD. Biomedical, Life and Health Sciences Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011 Oct;43(10):1972-8.

72. Six weeks of high-intensity interval training with and without beta-alanine supplementation for improving cardiovascular fitness in women.

Walter AA, Smith AE, Kendall KL, Stout JR, Cramer JT. Biophysics Laboratory, Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, USA. J Strength Cond Res. 2010 May;24(5):1199-207.

73. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial.

Smith AE, Walter AA, Graef JL, Kendall KL, Moon JR, Lockwood CM, Fukuda DH, Beck TW, Cramer JT, Stout JR. Metabolic and Body Composition Laboratory, Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2009 Feb 11;6:5.

74. Effects of β-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysis.

Hobson RM, Saunders B, Ball G, Harris RC, Sale C. Biomedical, Life and Health Sciences Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Lane, Nottingham, UK. Amino Acids. 2012 Jul;43(1):25-37.

75. Effects of β-alanine supplementation on performance and body composition in collegiate wrestlers and football players.

Kern BD, Robinson TL. Human Performance and Physical Education Department, Adams State College, Alamosa, Colorado, USA. J Strength Cond Res. 2011 Jul;25(7):1804-15.

76. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial.

Smith AE, Walter AA, Graef JL, Kendall KL, Moon JR, Lockwood CM, Fukuda DH, Beck TW, Cramer JT, Stout JR. Metabolic and Body Composition Laboratory, Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2009 Feb 11;6:5.

77. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on the onset of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold in women.

Stout JR, Cramer JT, Zoeller RF, Torok D, Costa P, Hoffman JR, Harris RC, O'Kroy J. Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA. Amino Acids. 2007;32(3):381-6.

78. The effect of beta-alanine supplementation on neuromuscular fatigue in elderly (55-92 Years): a double-blind randomized study.

Stout JR, Graves BS, Smith AE, Hartman MJ, Cramer JT, Beck TW, Harris RC. Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2008 Nov 7;5:21.

79. Short-duration beta-alanine supplementation increases training volume and reduces subjective feelings of fatigue in college football players.

Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA, Faigenbaum AD, Ross R, Kang J, Stout JR, Wise JA. Department of Health and Exercise Science, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ, USA. Nutr Res. 2008 Jan;28(1):31-5.

80. The effect of two β-alanine dosing strategies on 30-minute rowing performance: a randomized, controlled trial.

Beasley L, Smith L, Antonio J, Gordon D, Johnstone J, Roberts J. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018 Dec 18;15(1):59. doi: 10.1186/s12970-018-0266-3.

81. Acute supplementation with alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine augments growth hormone response to, and peak force production during, resistance exercise.

Ziegenfuss T, Landis J, Hofheins J. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2008;5(Suppl 1):P15. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-5-S1-P15.

83. Glycerophosphocholine enhances growth hormone secretion and fat oxidation in young adults.

Kawamura T, Okubo T, Sato K, et al. Nutrition. 2012;28(11-12):1122-1126. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2012.02.011

84. Evaluation of the effects of two doses of alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine on physical and psychomotor performance. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition.

Marcus L, Soileau J, Judge LW, Bellar D. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2017;14:39. doi:10.1186/s12970-017-0196-5.

85. The effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance, skeletal muscle oxygen saturation and associated biochemical parameters in resistance trained men.

Trepanowski JF, Farney TM, McCarthy CG, Schilling BK, Craig SA, Bloomer RJ. Cardiorespiratory/Metabolic Laboratory, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee, USA. J Strength Cond Res. 2011 Dec;25(12):3461-71.

86. Ergogenic effects of betaine supplementation on strength and power performance.

Lee EC, Maresh CM, Kraemer WJ, Yamamoto LM, Hatfield DL, Bailey BL, Armstrong LE, Volek JS, McDermott BP, Craig SA. Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2010 Jul 19;7:27.

87. Artificial Sweeteners: History and New Concepts on Inflammation.

Basson AR, Rodriguez-Palacios A, Cominelli F. Front Nutr. 2021;8:746247. Published 2021 Sep 24. doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.746247.

88. Non-caloric artificial sweeteners and the microbiome: findings and challenges.

Suez J, Korem T, Zilberman-Schapira G, Segal E, Elinav E. Gut Microbes. 2015;6(2):149-155. doi:10.1080/19490976.2015.1017700.

89. What made Canada become a country with the highest incidence of inflammatory bowel disease: could sucralose be the culprit?

Qin X. Department of Surgery, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA. Can J Gastroenterol. 2011 Sep;25(9):511.

90. Artificial Sweeteners Negatively Regulate Pathogenic Characteristics of Two Model Gut Bacteria, E. coli and E. faecalis.

Shil A, Chichger H. Int J Mol Sci. 2021;22(10):5228. Published 2021 May 15. doi:10.3390/ijms22105228.

91. Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota.

Suez J, Korem T, Zeevi D, et al. Nature. 2014;514(7521):181-186. doi:10.1038/nature13793.

92. High-intensity sweetener consumption and gut microbiome content and predicted gene function in a cross-sectional study of adults in the United States.

Frankenfeld CL, Sikaroodi M, Lamb E, Shoemaker S, Gillevet PM. Ann Epidemiol. 2015;25(10):736-42.e4. doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2015.06.083.

93. Steviol glycosides from Stevia: biosynthesis pathway review and their application in foods and medicine.

Yadav SK, Guleria P. CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, 176061, HP, India. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2012;52(11):988-98.

94. Antioxidant, anti-diabetic and renal protective properties of Stevia rebaudiana.

Shivanna N, Naika M, Khanum F, Kaul VK. Department of Applied Nutrition, Defence Food Research Laboratory, Mysore, India. J Diabetes Complications. 2013 Mar-Apr;27(2):103-13.

95. Safety evaluation of certain food additives.

World Health Organization. WHO Press; 2006. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2006/9241660546_eng.pdf. Accessed January 24, 2019.

96. Effects of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) extract and N-nitro-L-arginine on renal function and ultrastructure of kidney cells in experimental type 2 Diabetes.

Ozbayer C, Kurt H, Kalender S, Ozden H, Gunes HV, Basaran A, Cakmak EA, Civi K, Kalender Y, Degirmenci I. Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey. J Med Food. 2011 Oct;14(10):1215-22.

97. Toxicological significance of azo dye metabolism by human intestinal microbiota.

Feng J, Cerniglia CE, Chen H. Division of Microbiology, National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, AR , USA. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2012 Jan 1;4:568-86.

98. Artificial food dyes and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Kanarek RB. Department of Psychology, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts, USA. Nutr Rev. 2011 Jul;69(7):385-91.

99. Meta-analysis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, restriction diet, and synthetic food color additives.

Nigg JT, Lewis K, Edinger T, Falk M. Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012 Jan;51(1):86-97.e8.

100. Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

McCann D, Barrett A, Cooper A, Crumpler D, Dalen L, Grimshaw K, Kitchin E, Lok K, Porteous L, Prince E, Sonuga-Barke E, Warner JO, Stevenson J. School of Psychology, Department of Child Health, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. Lancet. 2007 Nov 3;370(9598):1560-7.

101. Effect of food azo dye tartrazine on learning and memory functions in mice and rats, and the possible mechanisms involved.

Gao Y, Li C, Shen J, Yin H, An X, Jin H. Scientific and Technological College of Chemistry and Biology, Yantai Univ., Yantai, PR China. J Food Sci. 2011 Aug;76(6):T125-9.

null.

Some stim-free pre-workouts are all-natural. Some contain the right mix of high-quality ingredients. Some provide clinically effective doses. But only Pulse checks each of these boxes.

null.

Pulse doesn’t just “contain natural ingredients''—every ingredient is naturally sourced from plants and animals. Pulse contains no artificial or synthetic substances of any kind.

null.

Every serving of Pulse contains 14.4 grams of active ingredients that have been shown to be safe and effective in peer-reviewed scientific research.

null.

Every active ingredient in Pulse is backed by published scientific studies that show benefits in healthy humans.

null.

Stim-free Pulse contains no stimulants of any kind, so it won’t wind you up and burn you out.

null.

That’s 436 pages of scientific research that shows Pulse works the way we say it does.

null.

While these chemicals may not be as dangerous as some people claim, studies suggest that regular consumption of them may indeed be harmful to our health. And that’s why we don’t put any of them into our products.

null.

Every bottle of Pulse is guaranteed to provide exactly what the label claims and nothing else—no heavy metals, microbes, allergens, or other contaminants.

null.

This means you know exactly what’s in every serving of Pulse—every dose of every ingredient—and can verify the accuracy and efficacy of the formulation.

null.

Before you buy a sports supplement, you should know that it's clean, safe, and transparent. And that's exactly what Labdoor's third-party testing and certification means.

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null. Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness.

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null. Acute citrulline malate supplementation improves upper- and lower-body submaximal weightlifting exercise performance in resistance-trained females.

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null. Acute citrulline-malate supplementation improves maximal strength and anaerobic power in female, masters athletes tennis players.

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null. Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness.

Pérez-Guisado J, Jakeman PM. Department of Medicine, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain. J Strength Cond Res. 2010 May;24(5):1215-22.

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null. Influence of oral beta-alanine and L-histidine supplementation on the carnosine content of the gluteus medius.

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Derave W, Ozdemir MS, Harris RC, Pottier A, Reyngoudt H, Koppo K, Wise JA, Achten E. Dept. of Movement and Sport Sciences, Ghent Univ, Belgium. J Appl Physiol. 2007 Nov;103(5):1736-43.

null. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on the onset of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold in women.

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null. The effect of beta-alanine supplementation on neuromuscular fatigue in elderly (55-92 Years): a double-blind randomized study.

Stout JR, Graves BS, Smith AE, Hartman MJ, Cramer JT, Beck TW, Harris RC. Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2008 Nov 7;5:21.

null. Short-duration beta-alanine supplementation increases training volume and reduces subjective feelings of fatigue in college football players.

Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA, Faigenbaum AD, Ross R, Kang J, Stout JR, Wise JA. Department of Health and Exercise Science, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ, USA. Nutr Res. 2008 Jan;28(1):31-5.

null. Influence of beta-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity.

Hill CA, Harris RC, Kim HJ, Harris BD, Sale C, Boobis LH, Kim CK, Wise JA. School of Sports, Exercise & Health Sciences, University of Chichester, Chichester, UK. Amino Acids. 2007 Feb;32(2):225-33.

null. Effect of β-alanine plus sodium bicarbonate on high-intensity cycling capacity.

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null. Six weeks of high-intensity interval training with and without beta-alanine supplementation for improving cardiovascular fitness in women.

Walter AA, Smith AE, Kendall KL, Stout JR, Cramer JT. Biophysics Laboratory, Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, USA. J Strength Cond Res. 2010 May;24(5):1199-207.

null. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial.

Smith AE, Walter AA, Graef JL, Kendall KL, Moon JR, Lockwood CM, Fukuda DH, Beck TW, Cramer JT, Stout JR. Metabolic and Body Composition Laboratory, Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2009 Feb 11;6:5.

null. Effects of β-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysis.

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null. Effects of β-alanine supplementation on performance and body composition in collegiate wrestlers and football players.

Kern BD, Robinson TL. Human Performance and Physical Education Department, Adams State College, Alamosa, Colorado, USA. J Strength Cond Res. 2011 Jul;25(7):1804-15.

null. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial.

Smith AE, Walter AA, Graef JL, Kendall KL, Moon JR, Lockwood CM, Fukuda DH, Beck TW, Cramer JT, Stout JR. Metabolic and Body Composition Laboratory, Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2009 Feb 11;6:5.

null. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on the onset of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold in women.

Stout JR, Cramer JT, Zoeller RF, Torok D, Costa P, Hoffman JR, Harris RC, O'Kroy J. Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA. Amino Acids. 2007;32(3):381-6.

null. The effect of beta-alanine supplementation on neuromuscular fatigue in elderly (55-92 Years): a double-blind randomized study.

Stout JR, Graves BS, Smith AE, Hartman MJ, Cramer JT, Beck TW, Harris RC. Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2008 Nov 7;5:21.

null. Short-duration beta-alanine supplementation increases training volume and reduces subjective feelings of fatigue in college football players.

Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA, Faigenbaum AD, Ross R, Kang J, Stout JR, Wise JA. Department of Health and Exercise Science, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ, USA. Nutr Res. 2008 Jan;28(1):31-5.

null. The effect of two β-alanine dosing strategies on 30-minute rowing performance: a randomized, controlled trial.

Beasley L, Smith L, Antonio J, Gordon D, Johnstone J, Roberts J. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018 Dec 18;15(1):59. doi: 10.1186/s12970-018-0266-3.

null. Acute supplementation with alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine augments growth hormone response to, and peak force production during, resistance exercise.

Ziegenfuss T, Landis J, Hofheins J. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2008;5(Suppl 1):P15. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-5-S1-P15.

null. Glycerophosphocholine enhances growth hormone secretion and fat oxidation in young adults.

Kawamura T, Okubo T, Sato K, et al. Nutrition. 2012;28(11-12):1122-1126. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2012.02.011

null. Evaluation of the effects of two doses of alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine on physical and psychomotor performance. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition.

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null. The effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance, skeletal muscle oxygen saturation and associated biochemical parameters in resistance trained men.

Trepanowski JF, Farney TM, McCarthy CG, Schilling BK, Craig SA, Bloomer RJ. Cardiorespiratory/Metabolic Laboratory, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee, USA. J Strength Cond Res. 2011 Dec;25(12):3461-71.

null. Ergogenic effects of betaine supplementation on strength and power performance.

Lee EC, Maresh CM, Kraemer WJ, Yamamoto LM, Hatfield DL, Bailey BL, Armstrong LE, Volek JS, McDermott BP, Craig SA. Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2010 Jul 19;7:27.

null. Artificial Sweeteners: History and New Concepts on Inflammation.

Basson AR, Rodriguez-Palacios A, Cominelli F. Front Nutr. 2021;8:746247. Published 2021 Sep 24. doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.746247.

null. Non-caloric artificial sweeteners and the microbiome: findings and challenges.

Suez J, Korem T, Zilberman-Schapira G, Segal E, Elinav E. Gut Microbes. 2015;6(2):149-155. doi:10.1080/19490976.2015.1017700.

null. What made Canada become a country with the highest incidence of inflammatory bowel disease: could sucralose be the culprit?

Qin X. Department of Surgery, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA. Can J Gastroenterol. 2011 Sep;25(9):511.

null. Artificial Sweeteners Negatively Regulate Pathogenic Characteristics of Two Model Gut Bacteria, E. coli and E. faecalis.

Shil A, Chichger H. Int J Mol Sci. 2021;22(10):5228. Published 2021 May 15. doi:10.3390/ijms22105228.

null. Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota.

Suez J, Korem T, Zeevi D, et al. Nature. 2014;514(7521):181-186. doi:10.1038/nature13793.

null. High-intensity sweetener consumption and gut microbiome content and predicted gene function in a cross-sectional study of adults in the United States.

Frankenfeld CL, Sikaroodi M, Lamb E, Shoemaker S, Gillevet PM. Ann Epidemiol. 2015;25(10):736-42.e4. doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2015.06.083.

null. Steviol glycosides from Stevia: biosynthesis pathway review and their application in foods and medicine.

Yadav SK, Guleria P. CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, 176061, HP, India. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2012;52(11):988-98.

null. Antioxidant, anti-diabetic and renal protective properties of Stevia rebaudiana.

Shivanna N, Naika M, Khanum F, Kaul VK. Department of Applied Nutrition, Defence Food Research Laboratory, Mysore, India. J Diabetes Complications. 2013 Mar-Apr;27(2):103-13.

null. Safety evaluation of certain food additives.

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null. Effects of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) extract and N-nitro-L-arginine on renal function and ultrastructure of kidney cells in experimental type 2 Diabetes.

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null. Toxicological significance of azo dye metabolism by human intestinal microbiota.

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null. Meta-analysis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, restriction diet, and synthetic food color additives.

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null. Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

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null. Effect of food azo dye tartrazine on learning and memory functions in mice and rats, and the possible mechanisms involved.

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102.

Recharge doesn’t just “contain natural ingredients''—every ingredient is naturally sourced from plants and animals. Recharge contains no artificial or synthetic substances of any kind.

103.

Every serving of Recharge contains 7.1 grams of active ingredients that have been shown to be safe and effective in peer-reviewed scientific research.

104.

Each active ingredient in Recharge is backed by published scientific studies that show benefits in healthy humans.

105.

That’s 486 pages of scientific research that shows Recharge works exactly like we say it does.

106.

While these types of chemicals may not be as dangerous as some people claim, studies suggest that regular consumption of them may indeed be harmful to our health. And that’s why you won’t find them in Recharge.

107.

Every bottle of Recharge is guaranteed to provide exactly what the label claims and nothing else—no heavy metals, microbes, allergens, or other contaminants.

108.

This means you know exactly what’s in every serving of Recharge—every dose of every ingredient—and can verify the accuracy and efficacy of the formulation.

109.

Before you buy a sports supplement, you should know that it's clean, safe, and transparent. And that's exactly what Labdoor's third-party testing and certification means.

110. Effect of creatine supplementation on body composition and performance: a meta-analysis.

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111. Effect of creatine and beta-alanine supplementation on performance and endocrine responses in strength/power athletes.

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112. Effects of two and five days of creatine loading on muscular strength and anaerobic power in trained athletes.

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113. Effects of creatine supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and weightlifting performance.

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114. Effect of creatine phosphate supplementation on anaerobic working capacity and body weight after two and six days of loading in men and women.

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115. Combined creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation enhances interval swimming.

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116. Effect of two and five days of creatine loading on anaerobic working capacity in women.

Eckerson JM, Stout JR, Moore GA, Stone NJ, Nishimura K, Tamura K. J Strength Cond Res. 2004 Feb;18(1):168-73. doi: 10.1519/1533-4287(2004)018<0168:eotafd>2.0.co;2.

117. Effects of high dose oral creatine supplementation on anaerobic capacity of elite wrestlers.

Koçak S, Karli U. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2003 Dec;43(4):488-92.

118. Effects of four weeks of high-intensity interval training and creatine supplementation on critical power and anaerobic working capacity in college-aged men.

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119. The effects of creatine loading and gender on anaerobic running capacity.

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120. Effect of short-term creatine supplementation on markers of skeletal muscle damage after strenuous contractile activity.

Bassit RA, Pinheiro CH, Vitzel KF, Sproesser AJ, Silveira LR, Curi R. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010 Mar;108(5):945-55. doi: 10.1007/s00421-009-1305-1. Epub 2009 Dec 3.

121. The effect of creatine supplementation upon inflammatory and muscle soreness markers after a 30km race.

Santos RV, Bassit RA, Caperuto EC, Costa Rosa LF. Life Sci. 2004 Sep 3;75(16):1917-24. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2003.11.036.

122. Muscle glycogen supercompensation is enhanced by prior creatine supplementation.

Nelson AG, Arnall DA, Kokkonen J, Day R, Evans J. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001 Jul;33(7):1096-100. doi: 10.1097/00005768-200107000-00005.

123. Creatine supplementation affects muscle creatine during energy restriction.

Rockwell JA, Rankin JW, Toderico B. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001 Jan;33(1):61-8. doi: 10.1097/00005768-200101000-00011.

124. Adverse effects of creatine supplementation: fact or fiction?

Poortmans JR, Francaux M. Sports Med. 2000 Sep;30(3):155-70. doi: 10.2165/00007256-200030030-00002.

125. American College of Sports Medicine roundtable. The physiological and health effects of oral creatine supplementation.

Terjung RL, Clarkson P, Eichner ER, Greenhaff PL, Hespel PJ, Israel RG, Kraemer WJ, Meyer RA, Spriet LL, Tarnopolsky MA, Wagenmakers AJ, Williams MH. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000 Mar;32(3):706-17. doi: 10.1097/00005768-200003000-00024.

126. Effects of creatine supplementation on renal function.

Yoshizumi WM, Tsourounis C. J Herb Pharmacother. 2004;4(1):1-7.

127. Is the use of oral creatine supplementation safe?

Bizzarini E, De Angelis L. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2004 Dec;44(4):411-6.

128. Few adverse effects of long-term creatine supplementation in a placebo-controlled trial.

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129. Creatine supplementation and exercise performance: recent findings.

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130. L-carnitine--metabolic functions and meaning in humans life.

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131. Pharmacokinetics of L-carnitine.

Evans AM, Fornasini G. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2003;42(11):941-67. doi: 10.2165/00003088-200342110-00002.

132. Chronic oral ingestion of L-carnitine and carbohydrate increases muscle carnitine content and alters muscle fuel metabolism during exercise in humans.

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133. The effects of L-carnitine L-tartrate supplementation on hormonal responses to resistance exercise and recovery.

Kraemer WJ, Volek JS, French DN, Rubin MR, Sharman MJ, Gómez AL, Ratamess NA, Newton RU, Jemiolo B, Craig BW, Häkkinen K. J Strength Cond Res. 2003 Aug;17(3):455-62. doi: 10.1519/1533-4287(2003)017<0455:teolls>2.0.co;2.

134. L-Carnitine L-tartrate supplementation favorably affects markers of recovery from exercise stress.

Volek JS, Kraemer WJ, Rubin MR, Gómez AL, Ratamess NA, Gaynor P. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Feb;282(2):E474-82. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00277.2001.

135. l-Carnitine l-tartrate supplementation favorably affects biochemical markers of recovery from physical exertion in middle-aged men and women.

Ho JY, Kraemer WJ, Volek JS, Fragala MS, Thomas GA, Dunn-Lewis C, Coday M, Häkkinen K, Maresh CM. Metabolism. 2010 Aug;59(8):1190-9. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2009.11.012.

136. l-Carnitine l-tartrate supplementation favorably affects biochemical markers of recovery from physical exertion in middle-aged men and women.

Ho JY, Kraemer WJ, Volek JS, Fragala MS, Thomas GA, Dunn-Lewis C, Coday M, Häkkinen K, Maresh CM. Metabolism. 2010 Aug;59(8):1190-9. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2009.11.012.

137. Effects of oral L-carnitine supplementation on insulin sensitivity indices in response to glucose feeding in lean and overweight/obese males.

Galloway SD, Craig TP, Cleland SJ. Amino Acids. 2011 Jul;41(2):507-15. doi: 10.1007/s00726-010-0770-5.

138. Responses of criterion variables to different supplemental doses of L-carnitine L-tartrate.

Spiering BA, Kraemer WJ, Vingren JL, Hatfield DL, Fragala MS, Ho JY, Maresh CM, Anderson JM, Volek JS. J Strength Cond Res. 2007 Feb;21(1):259-64. doi: 10.1519/00124278-200702000-00046.

139. Effect of corosolic acid on postchallenge plasma glucose levels.

Fukushima M, Matsuyama F, Ueda N, Egawa K, Takemoto J, Kajimoto Y, Yonaha N, Miura T, Kaneko T, Nishi Y, Mitsui R, Fujita Y, Yamada Y, Seino Y. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2006 Aug;73(2):174-7. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2006.01.010.

140. Effect of corosolic acid on postchallenge plasma glucose levels.

Fukushima M, Matsuyama F, Ueda N, Egawa K, Takemoto J, Kajimoto Y, Yonaha N, Miura T, Kaneko T, Nishi Y, Mitsui R, Fujita Y, Yamada Y, Seino Y. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2006 Aug;73(2):174-7. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2006.01.010.

141. Artificial Sweeteners: History and New Concepts on Inflammation.

Basson AR, Rodriguez-Palacios A, Cominelli F. Front Nutr. 2021;8:746247. Published 2021 Sep 24. doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.746247.

142. Non-caloric artificial sweeteners and the microbiome: findings and challenges.

Suez J, Korem T, Zilberman-Schapira G, Segal E, Elinav E. Gut Microbes. 2015;6(2):149-155. doi:10.1080/19490976.2015.1017700.

143. What made Canada become a country with the highest incidence of inflammatory bowel disease: could sucralose be the culprit?

Qin X. Department of Surgery, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA. Can J Gastroenterol. 2011 Sep;25(9):511.

144. Artificial Sweeteners Negatively Regulate Pathogenic Characteristics of Two Model Gut Bacteria, E. coli and E. faecalis.

Shil A, Chichger H. Int J Mol Sci. 2021;22(10):5228. Published 2021 May 15. doi:10.3390/ijms22105228.

145. Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota.

Suez J, Korem T, Zeevi D, et al. Nature. 2014;514(7521):181-186. doi:10.1038/nature13793.

146. High-intensity sweetener consumption and gut microbiome content and predicted gene function in a cross-sectional study of adults in the United States.

Frankenfeld CL, Sikaroodi M, Lamb E, Shoemaker S, Gillevet PM. Ann Epidemiol. 2015;25(10):736-42.e4. doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2015.06.083.

147. Steviol glycosides from Stevia: biosynthesis pathway review and their application in foods and medicine.

Yadav SK, Guleria P. CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, 176061, HP, India. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2012;52(11):988-98.

148.