Conjugated linoleic acid, or CLA, is a popular supplement purported to improve health in multiple ways.
Many people believe it helps you lose fat and build muscle, decreases your risk of poor metabolic and cardiovascular health, and increases testosterone production, all without any adverse side effects.
Many others, however, are leery of these claims. They believe the benefits of CLA are based on controvertible evidence and that taking CLA comes with significant risk.
Who should you believe?
Is CLA all pros and no cons?
Is it really safe and side-effect free?
Get an evidence-based answer in this article.
(Or if you’d prefer to skip all of the scientific mumbo jumbo, and you just want to know if you should take CLA or a different supplement to reach your goals, take the Legion Supplement Finder Quiz, and in less than a minute, you’ll know exactly what supplements are right for you. Click here to check it out.)
Table of Contents
What Is CLA?
CLA stands for conjugated linoleic acid and refers to a group of naturally occurring fatty acids.
CLA is found primarily in the meat and dairy of ruminants such as cows, goats, sheep, and buffalo, though the amount can vary depending on the animal’s diet, altitude, breed, and lactation age.
For example, some evidence shows that the dairy produced by cows free to pasture contains up to 500% more CLA than cows fed a typical dairy cow diet.
Scientists can also synthesize CLA using vegetable oils such as sunflower and safflower oil.
There are 28 possible forms of CLA.
All of these forms share the same chemical formula, but the atoms in each are arranged differently, giving them slightly different properties.
Most of the CLA in the human diet (75-to-80%) comes from a form known as cis-9, trans-11-CLA, or c9,t11.
You don't need supplements to build muscle, lose fat, and get healthy. But the right ones can help. Take this quiz to learn which ones are best for you.
Find the Perfect Supplements for You in Just 60 Seconds
You don't need supplements to build muscle, lose fat, and get healthy. But the right ones can help. Take this quiz to learn which ones are best for you.Take the Quiz
What Is a CLA Supplement?
CLA supplements are dietary supplements that typically contain equal amounts of c9,t11 and another form of CLA called trans-10, cis-12-CLA (t10,c12).
People take CLA supplements because they believe that CLA confers several health benefits, including decreased risk of diabetes and improved cardiovascular health.
In fitness circles, the most common reason people supplement with CLA is to boost fat burning, though some also believe it enhances muscle growth, testosterone production, and athletic performance.
How Does CLA Work?
The most common reason people take CLA is to boost weight loss. While we don’t fully understand how CLA affects fat burning, some scientists believe it’s connected to how CLA interacts with Peroxisome Proliferator activated Receptors (PPAR).
Research on rats shows that CLA (particularly c9,t11 and t10,c12) binds to PPARa, which according to some researchers, may increase fat burning.
There’s also evidence from a human study that t10,c12 inhibits PPARy, a receptor found in fat cells that increases fat gain. That said, other research on human cells shows that c9,t11 activates PPARy, and thus has the opposite effect.
Research on human cells also suggests that CLA suppresses or inhibits enzymes that contribute to fat gain, such as lipoprotein lipase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Likewise, animal studies show that CLA increases levels of enzymes that boost energy expenditure, such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and acyl-CoA oxidase.
Furthermore, studies show that CLA interacts with the enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS), though it’s not yet clear what effect this has on body fat. For instance, some studies show it increases fat burning, others that it has no effect, and still others that it increases fat gain.
How many calories should you eat? What about "macros?" What foods should you eat? Take our 60-second quiz to get science-based answers to these questions and more.
Find the Best Diet for You in Just 60 Seconds
How many calories should you eat? What about "macros?" What foods should you eat? Take our 60-second quiz to get science-based answers to these questions and more.Take the Quiz
What Does CLA Do?
Supplement sellers claim that CLA benefits your health in multiple ways, including aiding weight loss, boosting muscle growth, increasing insulin sensitivity, enhancing athletic performance, and improving cardiovascular health.
Are these claims valid, though? Here’s what science says.
CLA and Weight Loss
Many people take CLA for weight loss. However, the evidence that it’s effective in this regard is weak.
Studies involving mice regularly show that CLA significantly boosts fat burning, decreases appetite, and prevents fat storage, but scientists seldom report similar results in human studies, with most showing CLA has no effects on fat loss in humans.
The results are underwhelming in the few studies showing CLA increases fat loss in humans, too.
For example, in one study published in the journal Nutrients, people who supplemented with CLA twice daily for 12 weeks lost just ~1.5 pounds of fat. In another study by scientists at the University of Barcelona, overweight people who took CLA for 12 weeks lost only ~1.3 pounds.
Perhaps the most “dramatic” weight loss seen in a CLA study comes from research conducted by scientists at the Max Rubner Institut. In this study, researchers found that 85 obese men (~75% of whom had metabolic syndrome) who took CLA for 4 weeks lost ~2.5 pounds of fat.
Other studies show that CLA’s weight-loss effects are highly unpredictable. For instance, one study published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition showed that some people who took CLA for 6 months lost as much as ~6.8 pounds of fat, while others gained ~4.2 pounds.
Moreover, CLA isn’t effective at preventing weight regain after dieting, nor does it help you eat less.
Overall, most data shows that CLA is a dud. Results from the few studies that suggest otherwise show that CLA’s effects are unreliable, inconsistent, and often inconsequential. As such, there’s little reason to add CLA to your fat-loss supplement stack.
CLA and Muscle Growth
Many people believe that CLA boosts muscle growth, but most research shows this isn’t the case.
The few studies that disagree tend to be inconsistent, too.
For example, scientists at Rowett Research Institute found that young obese men who took CLA and fish oil for 12 weeks increased muscle mass by 2.4%, though young lean men and older obese and lean men saw no benefit.
Researchers at the University of North Carolina found that obese people who took 6.4 grams of CLA (a large dose) daily for 12 weeks gained ~1.3 pounds of muscle in 12 weeks. Those who took 3.2 grams of CLA daily saw no benefit.
Scientists at the Scandinavian Clinical Research AS found that overweight people who took CLA for one year increased their muscle mass by an average of 1.8%. Importantly, this result wasn’t consistent among everyone, with some losing as much as 2.5% of their muscle mass.
The only other study worth mentioning was published in the International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders and found that people who took CLA for 13 weeks while regaining weight after following a very low-calorie diet regained more weight as muscle than those who took a placebo (12-to-13.7% vs. 8.6-to-9.1%, respectively). Taking CLA didn’t help these people maintain a lower body weight over time, though.
Some people also believe that CLA can enhance muscle growth by boosting testosterone levels.
While research on human cells found CLA may be able to increase “T” production, the results weren’t replicated when scientists repeated the study in living humans.
In one animal study, scientists found that injecting mice with a mushroom extract containing high c9,t11 levels may prevent the enzyme aromatase from converting testosterone to estrogen. That said, the mushroom extract contained other compounds that could have been responsible for the result, so it’s impossible to say whether the c9,t11 contributed. It’s also impossible to know whether we’d see similar effects in humans.
Evidence that CLA positively influences muscle growth is lacking, and any evidence in support is inconsistent. Thus, it’s reasonable to conclude that CLA is ineffective at boosting muscle growth.
CLA and Insulin Sensitivity
Insulin sensitivity refers to how sensitive your body is to the effects of insulin.
People who are sensitive to insulin require less insulin to “shuttle” glucose (blood sugar) from their blood to their cells and remove glucose from their blood quicker. The more resistant to insulin you become, the worse your metabolic health and the higher your risk of type 2 diabetes.
While some animal studies show that c9,t11 increases insulin sensitivity, other research shows that t10,c12 causes inflammation that prevents glucose and fatty acids from entering cells, increasing insulin resistance.
Human studies on how CLA affects insulin sensitivity are inconsistent.
For instance, in one study conducted by scientists at the University of Guelph, 10 men took 3.2 grams of CLA daily. Six experienced an increase in insulin sensitivity, 2 experienced a decrease, and the remaining 2 experienced no change.
In another study published in Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, researchers found that out of 9 people who took CLA daily, 3 increased insulin sensitivity by 9-to-13% and 6 decreased insulin sensitivity by 9-to-79%.
Most other studies show that CLA has little effect on insulin sensitivity.
Given the inconsistent results regarding CLA’s effect on insulin sensitivity and its potential to increase insulin resistance, it’s sensible to avoid supplementing with CLA until more human research shows it’s safe to do so.
CLA and Athletic Performance
Studies looking at CLA’s effect on athletic performance are inconsistent and unpredictable. Some show that CLA has no effect on endurance, power, and strength, and others report that CLA may boost athletic performance to a small but significant degree.
Furthermore, one study shows that CLA increases bench press strength but not leg press strength in men but doesn’t increase women’s performance on either exercise.
The current evidence is too inconsistent to draw any firm conclusion about whether CLA improves athletic performance. Until more human trials illustrate a benefit, it’s probably not worth investing in a CLA supplement to boost athletic performance.
CLA and Cardiovascular Health
Studies investigating CLA’s effect on cardiovascular health are so diverse that they’re difficult to analyze.
For instance, some animal studies show that CLA may protect against cardiovascular disease (CVD) by boosting arterial health, improving cholesterol levels, and reducing oxidative stress.
On the other hand, human studies looking at how CLA affects cholesterol levels are conflicting, with some showing CLA improves cholesterol, others showing CLA doesn’t alter cholesterol levels, and still others suggesting CLA has a detrimental effect on cholesterol.
Furthermore, research suggests CLA increases oxidative stress and levels of blood markers such as c-reactive protein, both of which are associated with higher CVD risk. Despite this, research shows that taking CLA doesn’t increase your chance of developing CVD.
With such discordant results, it’s impossible to draw firm conclusions about how CLA affects cardiovascular health. Given that some research suggests CLA may be detrimental to cardiovascular health, it’s probably sensible to avoid CLA supplements until we have more evidence they’re safe.
. . . and it's yours for free. Take our 60-second quiz and learn exactly how many calories you should eat, what your "macros" should be, what foods are best for you, and more.
Some Nutritionists Charge Hundreds of Dollars for This Diet "Hack" . . .
. . . and it's yours for free. Take our 60-second quiz and learn exactly how many calories you should eat, what your "macros" should be, what foods are best for you, and more.Take the Quiz
CLA: Side Effects
CLA doesn’t appear to be toxic to humans, even when people take it for extended periods.
However, as we’ve already seen, CLA may decrease insulin sensitivity and impair cardiovascular health. Moreover, some animal research shows that taking large doses of CLA can cause increased fat accumulation in the liver.
Thus, we need more human research before we can be sure CLA is safe.
FAQ #1: What is CLA good for?
Emptying your wallet?
Jokes aside, there’s little evidence that CLA aids weight loss, boosts muscle growth, enhances athletic performance, or improves cardiovascular health.
FAQ #2: How long does it take for CLA to work?
Some studies show that people see benefits (fat loss, for example) within weeks, others have to wait months or years, and still others never experience any benefit from taking CLA.
FAQ #3: What are CLA’s benefits and dangers?
While many people believe taking CLA will aid weight loss, boost muscle growth, enhance athletic performance, and improve cardiovascular health, few people experience these benefits.
Unfortunately, everyone who takes CLA is susceptible to experiencing adverse side effects, most notably increased insulin resistance and CVD risk.
+ Scientific References
- Banni, S. (2002). Conjugated linoleic acid metabolism. Current Opinion in Lipidology, 13(3), 261–266. https://doi.org/10.1097/00041433-200206000-00005
- Santercole, V., Mazzette, R., De Santis, E. P. L., Banni, S., Goonewardene, L., & Kramer, J. K. G. (2007). Total lipids of Sarda sheep meat that include the fatty acid and alkenyl composition and the CLA and trans-18:1 isomers. Lipids, 42(4), 361–382. https://doi.org/10.1007/S11745-006-3003-7
- Bölükbaşi, Ş. C. (2006). Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on broiler performance, serum lipoprotein content, muscle fatty acid composition and meat quality during refrigerated storage. British Poultry Science, 47(4), 470–476. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071660600827716
- McCrorie, T. A., Keaveney, E. M., Wallace, J. M. W., Binns, N., & Livingstone, M. B. E. (2011). Human health effects of conjugated linoleic acid from milk and supplements. Nutrition Research Reviews, 24(2), 206–227. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954422411000114
- Sofi, F., Buccioni, A., Cesari, F., Gori, A. M., Minieri, S., Mannini, L., Casini, A., Gensini, G. F., Abbate, R., & Antongiovanni, M. (2010). Effects of a dairy product (pecorino cheese) naturally rich in cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid on lipid, inflammatory and haemorheological variables: a dietary intervention study. Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD, 20(2), 117–124. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.NUMECD.2009.03.004
- Raff, M., Tholstrup, T., Basu, S., Nonboe, P., Sørensen, M. T., & Straarup, E. M. (2008). A diet rich in conjugated linoleic acid and butter increases lipid peroxidation but does not affect atherosclerotic, inflammatory, or diabetic risk markers in healthy young men. The Journal of Nutrition, 138(3), 509–514. https://doi.org/10.1093/JN/138.3.509
- Dhiman, T. R., Nam, S. H., & Ure, A. L. (2005). Factors affecting conjugated linoleic acid content in milk and meat. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 45(6), 463–482. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408390591034463
- Parodi, P. (2003). Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Food. Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781439822166.CH8
- Banni, S. (2002). Conjugated linoleic acid metabolism. Current Opinion in Lipidology, 13(3), 261–266. https://doi.org/10.1097/00041433-200206000-00005
- Pariza, M. W., Park, Y., & Cook, M. E. (2001). The biologically active isomers of conjugated linoleic acid. Progress in Lipid Research, 40(4), 283–298. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0163-7827(01)00008-X
- Lee, Y. (2008). Isomer specificity of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA): 9E,11E-CLA. Nutrition Research and Practice, 2(4), 326. https://doi.org/10.4162/NRP.2008.2.4.326
- Lock, A. L., & Bauman, D. E. (2004). Modifying milk fat composition of dairy cows to enhance fatty acids beneficial to human health. Lipids, 39(12), 1197–1206. https://doi.org/10.1007/S11745-004-1348-6
- Moya-Camarena, S. Y., Vanden Heuvel, J. P., & Belury, M. A. (1999). Conjugated linoleic acid activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and β subtypes but does not induce hepatic peroxisome proliferation in Sprague-Dawley rats. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids, 1436(3), 331–342. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-2760(98)00121-0
- Nazare, J. A., de la Perrière, A. B., Bonnet, F., Desage, M., Peyrat, J., Maitrepierre, C., Louche-Pelissier, C., Bruzeau, J., Goudable, J., Lassel, T., Vidal, H., & Laville, M. (2007). Daily intake of conjugated linoleic acid-enriched yoghurts: effects on energy metabolism and adipose tissue gene expression in healthy subjects. The British Journal of Nutrition, 97(2), 273–280. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114507191911
- Evans, M., Park, Y., Pariza, M., Curtis, L., Kuebler, B., & McIntosh, M. (2001). Trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid reduces triglyceride content while differentially affecting peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma2 and aP2 expression in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Lipids, 36(11), 1223–1232. https://doi.org/10.1007/S11745-001-0836-Z
- Brown, J. M., Halvorsen, Y. D., Lea-Currie, Y. R., Geigerman, C., & McIntosh, M. (2001). Trans-10, cis-12, but not cis-9, trans-11, conjugated linoleic acid attenuates lipogenesis in primary cultures of stromal vascular cells from human adipose tissue. The Journal of Nutrition, 131(9), 2316–2321. https://doi.org/10.1093/JN/131.9.2316
- Lau, D. S. Y., & Archer, M. C. (2010). The 10t,12c isomer of conjugated linoleic acid inhibits fatty acid synthase expression and enzyme activity in human breast, colon, and prostate cancer cells. Nutrition and Cancer, 62(1), 116–121. https://doi.org/10.1080/01635580903191536
- Zabala, A., Churruca, I., Fernández-Quintela, A., Rodríguez, V. M., Macarulla, M. T., Martínez, J. A., & Portillo, M. P. (2006). trans-10,cis-12 Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits lipoprotein lipase but increases the activity of lipogenic enzymes in adipose tissue from hamsters fed an atherogenic diet. The British Journal of Nutrition, 95(6), 1112–1119. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN20061774
- Macarulla, M. T., Fernández-Quintela, A., Zabala, A., Navarro, V., Echevarría, E., Churruca, I., Rodríguez, V. M., & Portillo, M. P. (2005). Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on liver composition and fatty acid oxidation are isomer-dependent in hamster. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), 21(4), 512–519. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.NUT.2004.07.011
- Pariza, M. W., Park, Y., & Cook, M. E. (2001). The biologically active isomers of conjugated linoleic acid. Progress in Lipid Research, 40(4), 283–298. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0163-7827(01)00008-X
- Clément, L., Poirier, H., Niot, I., Bocher, V., Guerre-Millo, M., Krief, S., Staels, B., & Besnard, P. (2002). Dietary trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid induces hyperinsulinemia and fatty liver in the mouse. Journal of Lipid Research, 43(9), 1400–1409. https://doi.org/10.1194/JLR.M20008-JLR200
- Miranda, J., Churruca, I., Fernández-Quintela, A., Rodríguez, V. M., MacArulla, M. T., Simón, E., & Portillo, M. P. (2009). Weak effect of trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid on body fat accumulation in adult hamsters. The British Journal of Nutrition, 102(11), 1583–1589. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114509990912
- Lasa, A., Miranda, J., Churruca, I., Simón, E., Arias, N., Milagro, F., Martínez, J. A., & del Puy Portillo, M. (2011). The combination of resveratrol and CLA does not increase the delipidating effect of each molecule in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Nutricion Hospitalaria, 26(5), 997–1003. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0212-16112011000500012
- Andreoli, M. F., Gonzalez, M. A., Martinelli, M. I., Mocchiutti, N. O., & Bernal, C. A. (2009). Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid at high-fat levels on triacylglycerol regulation in mice. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), 25(4), 445–452. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.NUT.2008.10.015
- Ide, T. (2005). Interaction of fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid in affecting hepatic activity of lipogenic enzymes and gene expression in liver and adipose tissue. Diabetes, 54(2), 412–423. https://doi.org/10.2337/DIABETES.54.2.412
- Miner, J. L., Cederberg, C. A., Nielsen, M. K., Chen, X., & Baile, C. A. (2001). Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), body fat, and apoptosis. Obesity Research, 9(2), 129–134. https://doi.org/10.1038/OBY.2001.16
- West, D. B., Blohm, F. Y., Truett, A. A., & DeLany, J. P. (2000). Conjugated linoleic acid persistently increases total energy expenditure in AKR/J mice without increasing uncoupling protein gene expression. The Journal of Nutrition, 130(10), 2471–2477. https://doi.org/10.1093/JN/130.10.2471
- Evans, M., Lin, X., Odle, J., & McIntosh, M. (2002). Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid increases fatty acid oxidation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The Journal of Nutrition, 132(3), 450–455. https://doi.org/10.1093/JN/132.3.450
- Risérus, U., Vessby, B., Ärnlöv, J., & Basu, S. (2004). Effects of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on insulin sensitivity, lipid peroxidation, and proinflammatory markers in obese men. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80(2), 279–283. https://doi.org/10.1093/AJCN/80.2.279
- Larsen, T. M., Toubro, S., Gudmundsen, O., & Astrup, A. (2006). Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 1 y does not prevent weight or body fat regain. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 83(3), 606–612. https://doi.org/10.1093/AJCN.83.3.606
- Lambert, E. V., Goedecke, J. H., Bluett, K., Heggie, K., Claassen, A., Rae, D. E., West, S., Dugas, J., Dugas, L., Meltzer, S., Charlton, K., & Mohede, I. (2007). Conjugated linoleic acid versus high-oleic acid sunflower oil: effects on energy metabolism, glucose tolerance, blood lipids, appetite and body composition in regularly exercising individuals. The British Journal of Nutrition, 97(5), 1001–1011. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114507172822
- Joseph, S. V., Jacques, H., Plourde, M., Mitchell, P. L., McLeod, R. S., & Jones, P. J. H. (2011). Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 8 weeks does not affect body composition, lipid profile, or safety biomarkers in overweight, hyperlipidemic men. The Journal of Nutrition, 141(7), 1286–1291. https://doi.org/10.3945/JN.110.135087
- Wanders, A. J., Brouwer, I. A., Siebelink, E., & Katan, M. B. (2010). Effect of a high intake of conjugated linoleic acid on lipoprotein levels in healthy human subjects. PloS One, 5(2). https://doi.org/10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0009000
- Chen, S. C., Lin, Y. H., Huang, H. P., Hsu, W. L., Houng, J. Y., & Huang, C. K. (2012). Effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on weight loss and body fat composition in a Chinese population. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), 28(5), 559–565. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.NUT.2011.09.008
- Laso, N., Brugué, E., Vidal, J., Ros, E., Arnaiz, J. A., Carné, X., Vidal, S., Mas, S., Deulofeu, R., & Lafuente, A. (2007). Effects of milk supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (isomers cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12) on body composition and metabolic syndrome components. The British Journal of Nutrition, 98(4), 860–867. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114507750882
- Pfeuffer, M., Fielitz, K., Laue, C., Winkler, P., Rubin, D., Helwig, U., Giller, K., Kammann, J., Schwedhelm, E., Böger, R. H., Bub, A., Bell, D., & Schrezenmeir, J. (2011). CLA does not impair endothelial function and decreases body weight as compared with safflower oil in overweight and obese male subjects. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 30(1), 19–28. https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2011.10719940
- Racine, N. M., Watras, A. C., Carrel, A. L., Allen, D. B., McVean, J. J., Clark, R. R., O’Brien, A. R., O’Shea, M., Scott, C. E., & Schoeller, D. A. (2010). Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on body fat accretion in overweight or obese children. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 91(5), 1157–1164. https://doi.org/10.3945/AJCN.2009.28404
- Norris, L. E., Collene, A. L., Asp, M. L., Hsu, J. C., Liu, L. F., Richardson, J. R., Li, D., Bell, D., Osei, K., Jackson, R. D., & Belury, M. A. (2009). Comparison of dietary conjugated linoleic acid with safflower oil on body composition in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 90(3), 468–476. https://doi.org/10.3945/AJCN.2008.27371
- Close, R. N., Schoeller, D. A., Watras, A. C., & Nora, E. H. (2007). Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation alters the 6-mo change in fat oxidation during sleep. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 86(3), 797–804. https://doi.org/10.1093/AJCN/86.3.797
- Kamphuis, M. M. J. W., Lejeune, M. P. G. M., Saris, W. H. M., & Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S. (2003). Effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation after weight loss on appetite and food intake in overweight subjects. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 57(10), 1268–1274. https://doi.org/10.1038/SJ.EJCN.1601684
- Gaullier, J. M., Halse, J., Høye, K., Kristiansen, K., Fagertun, H., Vik, H., & Gudmundsen, O. (2005). Supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid for 24 months is well tolerated by and reduces body fat mass in healthy, overweight humans. The Journal of Nutrition, 135(4), 778–784. https://doi.org/10.1093/JN/135.4.778
- Blankson, H., Stakkestad, J. A., Fagertun, H., Thom, E., Wadstein, J., & Gudmundsen, O. (2000). Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body fat mass in overweight and obese humans. The Journal of Nutrition, 130(12), 2943–2948. https://doi.org/10.1093/JN/130.12.2943
- Richard B Kreider, Maria P Ferreira, Michael Greenwood, Michael Wilson, & Anthony L Almada. (n.d.). Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation during resistance training on body composition, bone density, strength, and selected hematological markers - PubMed. Retrieved December 14, 2022, from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12173945/
- Sneddon, A. A., Tsofliou, F., Fyfe, C. L., Matheson, I., Jackson, D. M., Horgan, G., Winzell, M. S., Wahle, K. W. J., Ahren, B., & Williams, L. M. (2008). Effect of a conjugated linoleic acid and omega-3 fatty acid mixture on body composition and adiponectin. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), 16(5), 1019–1024. https://doi.org/10.1038/OBY.2008.41
- Steck, S. E., Chalecki, A. M., Miller, P., Conway, J., Austin, G. L., Hardin, J. W., Albright, C. D., & Thuillier, P. (2007). Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for twelve weeks increases lean body mass in obese humans. The Journal of Nutrition, 137(5), 1188–1193. https://doi.org/10.1093/JN/137.5.1188
- Gaullier, J. M., Halse, J., Høye, K., Kristiansen, K., Fagertun, H., Vik, H., & Gudmundsen, O. (2004). Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 1 y reduces body fat mass in healthy overweight humans. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79(6), 1118–1125. https://doi.org/10.1093/AJCN/79.6.1118
- Kamphuis, M. M. J. W., Lejeune, M. P. G. M., Saris, W. H. M., & Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S. (2003). The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation after weight loss on body weight regain, body composition, and resting metabolic rate in overweight subjects. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders : Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 27(7), 840–847. https://doi.org/10.1038/SJ.IJO.0802304
- MacAluso, F., Morici, G., Catanese, P., Ardizzone, N. M., Gammazza, A. M., Bonsignore, G., Giudice, G. Lo, Stampone, T., Barone, R., Farina, F., & Di Felice, V. (2012). Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on testosterone levels in vitro and in vivo after an acute bout of resistance exercise. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26(6), 1667–1674. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0B013E318231AB78
- Chen, S., Oh, S. R., Phung, S., Hur, G., Ye, J. J., Kwok, S. L., Shrode, G. E., Belury, M., Adams, L. S., & Williams, D. (2006). Anti-aromatase activity of phytochemicals in white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). Cancer Research, 66(24), 12026–12034. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-2206
- Halade, G. V., Rahman, M. M., & Fernandes, G. (2010). Differential effects of conjugated linoleic acid isomers in insulin-resistant female C57Bl/6J mice. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 21(4), 332–337. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JNUTBIO.2009.01.006
- Halade, G. V., Rahman, M. M., & Fernandes, G. (2009). Effect of CLA isomers and their mixture on aging C57Bl/6J mice. European Journal of Nutrition, 48(7), 409–418. https://doi.org/10.1007/S00394-009-0029-7
- Chung, S., Brown, J. M., Provo, J. N., Hopkins, R., & McIntosh, M. K. (2005). Conjugated linoleic acid promotes human adipocyte insulin resistance through NFkappaB-dependent cytokine production. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 280(46), 38445–38456. https://doi.org/10.1074/JBC.M508159200
- Brown, J. M., Boysen, M. S., Chung, S., Fabiyi, O., Morrison, R. F., Mandrup, S., & McIntosh, M. K. (2004). Conjugated linoleic acid induces human adipocyte delipidation: autocrine/paracrine regulation of MEK/ERK signaling by adipocytokines. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 279(25), 26735–26747. https://doi.org/10.1074/JBC.M401766200
- Brown, J. M., Boysen, M. S., Jensen, S. S., Morrison, R. F., Storkson, J., Lea-Currie, R., Pariza, M., Mandrup, S., & McIntosh, M. K. (2003). Isomer-specific regulation of metabolism and PPARgamma signaling by CLA in human preadipocytes. Journal of Lipid Research, 44(7), 1287–1300. https://doi.org/10.1194/JLR.M300001-JLR200
- S. Papaetis, G., Orphanidou, D., & N. Panagiotou, T. (2011). Thiazolidinediones and type 2 diabetes: from cellular targets to cardiovascular benefit. Current Drug Targets, 12(10), 1498–1512. https://doi.org/10.2174/138945011796818243
- Eyjolfson, V., Spriet, L. L., & Dyck, D. J. (2004). Conjugated linoleic acid improves insulin sensitivity in young, sedentary humans. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), 814–820. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000126391.42896.31
- Thrush, A. B., Chabowski, A., Heigenhauser, G. J., McBride, B. W., Or-Rashid, M., & Dyck, D. J. (2007). Conjugated linoleic acid increases skeletal muscle ceramide content and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight, non-diabetic humans. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism = Physiologie Appliquee, Nutrition et Metabolisme, 32(3), 372–382. https://doi.org/10.1139/H06-116
- Watras, A. C., Buchholz, A. C., Close, R. N., Zhang, Z., & Schoeller, D. A. (2007). The role of conjugated linoleic acid in reducing body fat and preventing holiday weight gain. International Journal of Obesity (2005), 31(3), 481–487. https://doi.org/10.1038/SJ.IJO.0803437
- Syvertsen, C., Halse, J., Høivik, H. O., Gaullier, J. M., Nurminiemi, M., Kristiansen, K., Einerhand, A., O’Shea, M., & Gudmundsen, O. (2007). The effect of 6 months supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid on insulin resistance in overweight and obese. International Journal of Obesity (2005), 31(7), 1148–1154. https://doi.org/10.1038/SJ.IJO.0803482
- Diaz, M. L., Watkins, B. A., Li, Y., Anderson, R. A., & Campbell, W. W. (2008). Chromium picolinate and conjugated linoleic acid do not synergistically influence diet- and exercise-induced changes in body composition and health indexes in overweight women. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 19(1), 61–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JNUTBIO.2007.01.006
- Jenkins, N. D. M., Buckner, S. L., Baker, R. B., Bergstrom, H. C., Cochrane, K. C., Weir, J. P., Housh, T. J., & Cramer, J. T. (2014). Effects of 6 weeks of aerobic exercise combined with conjugated linoleic acid on the physical working capacity at fatigue threshold. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 28(8), 2127–2135. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000513
- Tarnopolsky, M. A., & Safdar, A. (2008). The potential benefits of creatine and conjugated linoleic acid as adjuncts to resistance training in older adults. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism = Physiologie Appliquee, Nutrition et Metabolisme, 33(1), 213–227. https://doi.org/10.1139/H07-142
- Cornish, S. M., Candow, D. G., Jantz, N. T., Chilibeck, P. D., Little, J. P., Forbes, S., Abeysekara, S., & Zello, G. A. (2009). Conjugated linoleic acid combined with creatine monohydrate and whey protein supplementation during strength training. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 19(1), 79–96. https://doi.org/10.1123/IJSNEM.19.1.79
- Pinkoski, C., Chilibeck, P. D., Candow, D. G., Esliger, D., Ewaschuk, J. B., Facci, M., Farthing, J. P., & Zello, G. A. (2006). The effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation during resistance training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(2), 339–348. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000183860.42853.15
- Kritchevsky, D., Tepper, S. A., Wright, S., Czarnecki, S. K., Wilson, T. A., & Nicolosi, R. J. (2004). Conjugated linoleic acid isomer effects in atherosclerosis: growth and regression of lesions. Lipids, 39(7), 611–616. https://doi.org/10.1007/S11745-004-1273-8
- R J Nicolosi, E J Rogers, D Kritchevsky, J A Scimeca, & P J Huth. (n.d.). Dietary conjugated linoleic acid reduces plasma lipoproteins and early aortic atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic hamsters - PubMed. Retrieved December 14, 2022, from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9209699/
- McLeod, R. S., LeBlanc, A. M., Langille, M. A., Mitchell, P. L., & Currie, D. L. (2004). Conjugated linoleic acids, atherosclerosis, and hepatic very-low-density lipoprotein metabolism. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79(6 Suppl). https://doi.org/10.1093/AJCN/79.6.1169S
- Mougios, V., Matsakas, A., Petridou, A., Ring, S., Sagredos, A., Melissopoulou, A., Tsigilis, N., & Nikolaidis, M. (2001). Effect of supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid on human serum lipids and body fat. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 12(10), 585–594. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0955-2863(01)00177-2
- Moloney, F., Yeow, T. P., Mullen, A., Nolan, J. J., & Roche, H. M. (2004). Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation, insulin sensitivity, and lipoprotein metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80(4), 887–895. https://doi.org/10.1093/AJCN/80.4.887
- Noone, E. J., Roche, H. M., Nugent, A. P., & Gibney, M. J. (2002). The effect of dietary supplementation using isomeric blends of conjugated linoleic acid on lipid metabolism in healthy human subjects. The British Journal of Nutrition, 88(3), 243–251. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN2002615
- Petridou, A., Mougios, V., & Sagredos, A. (2003). Supplementation with CLA: isomer incorporation into serum lipids and effect on body fat of women. Lipids, 38(8), 805–811. https://doi.org/10.1007/S11745-003-1129-2
- Tricon, S., Burdge, G. C., Jones, E. L., Russell, J. J., El-Khazen, S., Moretti, E., Hall, W. L., Gerry, A. B., Leake, D. S., Grimble, R. F., Williams, C. M., Calder, P. C., & Yaqoob, P. (2006). Effects of dairy products naturally enriched with cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid on the blood lipid profile in healthy middle-aged men. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 83(4), 744–753. https://doi.org/10.1093/AJCN/83.4.744
- Nelson, G. J., Kelley, D. S., Bartolini, G., Schmidt, P. C., & Simon, V. (2001). The effect of conjugated linoleic acid on plasma lipoproteins and tissue fatty acid composition in humans. Lipids, 36(3), 229–236. https://doi.org/10.1007/S11745-001-0712-X
- Sluijs, I., Plantinga, Y., De Roos, B., Mennen, L. I., & Bots, M. L. (2010). Dietary supplementation with cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid and aortic stiffness in overweight and obese adults. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 91(1), 175–183. https://doi.org/10.3945/AJCN.2009.28192
- Whigham, L. D., O’Shea, M., Mohede, I. C. M., Walaski, H. P., & Atkinson, R. L. (2004). Safety profile of conjugated linoleic acid in a 12-month trial in obese humans. Food and Chemical Toxicology : An International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association, 42(10), 1701–1709. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.FCT.2004.06.008
- Tricon, S., Burdge, G. C., Kew, S., Banerjee, T., Russell, J. J., Jones, E. L., Grimble, R. F., Williams, C. M., Yaqoob, P., & Calder, P. C. (2004). Opposing effects of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid on blood lipids in healthy humans. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80(3), 614–620. https://doi.org/10.1093/AJCN/80.3.614
- Risérus, U., Basu, S., Jovinge, S., Fredrikson, G. N., Ärnlöv, J., & Vessby, B. (2002). Supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid causes isomer-dependent oxidative stress and elevated C-reactive protein: a potential link to fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Circulation, 106(15), 1925–1929. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000033589.15413.48
- Smedman, A., Basu, S., Jovinge, S., Fredrikson, G. N., & Vessby, B. (2005). Conjugated linoleic acid increased C-reactive protein in human subjects. The British Journal of Nutrition, 94(5), 791–795. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN20041419
- Tholstrup, T., Raff, M., Straarup, E. M., Lund, P., Basu, S., & Bruun, J. M. (2008). An oil mixture with trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid increases markers of inflammation and in vivo lipid peroxidation compared with cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid in postmenopausal women. The Journal of Nutrition, 138(8), 1445–1451. https://doi.org/10.1093/JN/138.8.1445
- Benjamin, S., Prakasan, P., Sreedharan, S., Wright, A. D. G., & Spener, F. (2015). Pros and cons of CLA consumption: an insight from clinical evidences. Nutrition & Metabolism, 12(1), 4. https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-7075-12-4
- Jaudszus, A., Moeckel, P., Hamelmann, E., & Jahreis, G. (2010). Trans-10,cis-12-CLA-caused lipodystrophy is associated with profound changes of fatty acid profiles of liver, white adipose tissue and erythrocytes in mice: possible link to tissue-specific alterations of fatty acid desaturation. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism, 57(2), 103–111. https://doi.org/10.1159/000319877